A Theory of the Origin of the State: Traditional theories of state origins are considered and rejected in favor of a new ecological hypothesis.

@article{Carneiro1970ATO,
  title={A Theory of the Origin of the State: Traditional theories of state origins are considered and rejected in favor of a new ecological hypothesis.},
  author={Robert L. Carneiro},
  journal={Science},
  year={1970},
  volume={169 3947},
  pages={
          733-8
        }
}
In summary, then, the circumscription theory in its elaborated form goes far toward accounting for the origin of the state. It explains why states arose where they did, and why they failed to arise elsewhere. It shows the state to be a predictable response to certain specific cultural, demographic, and ecological conditions. Thus, it helps to elucidate what was undoubtedly the most important single step ever taken in the political evolution of mankind. 

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