A Theory of Lexical Access in Speech Production

  title={A Theory of Lexical Access in Speech Production},
  author={Willem J. M. Levelt},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  pages={1 - 38}
  • W. Levelt
  • Published 5 August 1996
  • Biology
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Preparing words in speech production is normally a fast and accurate process. We generate them two or three per second in fluent conversation; and overtly naming a clear picture of an object can easily be initiated within 600 msec after picture onset. The underlying process, however, is exceedingly complex. The theory reviewed in this target article analyzes this process as staged and feedforward. After a first stage of conceptual preparation, word generation proceeds through lexical selection… 

Spoken word production: A theory of lexical access

  • W. Levelt
  • Linguistics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
The theory of lexical access covers a sequence of processing stages beginning with the speaker's focusing on a target concept and ending with the initiation of articulation, which provides a handle on the analysis of multiword utterance production as well as a guide to the analysis and design of neuroimaging studies of spoken utterances production.

Models of word production

  • W. Levelt
  • Linguistics
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  • 1999

Effects of syllable frequency in speech production

Phonological activation of non-produced words. The dynamics of lexical access in speech production

[eng] Speaking can be considered a goal-directed behavior because speakers have to retrieve the appropriate words and phonemes from their mental lexicon. However, observational and experimental

Syllable and Segments Effects in Mandarin Chinese Spoken Word Production

Speaking involves stages of conceptual preparation, lemma selection, word-form encoding and articulation.Furthermore, process of word-form encoding can be divided into morphological encoding process,

Phonological Segments and Features as Planning Units in Speech Production

The author reports four experiments that examined phonological processes in spoken word production using the WEAVER model of word-form encoding, in which a serial encoding of segments is followed by a parallel activation of features.

Syllables in speech production: Effects of syllable preparation and syllable frequency

Evidence is found that syllables play a core functional role in speech production and are stored in a mental syllabary and it could be demonstrated that the production of syllables is sensitive to frequency.

Frequency Effects in the Production of Noun Phrases

In this study we explore some of the properties involved in the production of multi-word English utterances. In order to produce such utterances, the speech production system must retrieve several

The preparation of syllables in speech production




Accessing words in speech production: Stages, processes and representations

  • W. Levelt
  • Linguistics, Psychology
  • 1992

Prosodic Units in Speech Production

Four experiments demonstrate effects of prosodic structure on speech production latencies. Experiments 1 to 3 exploit a modified version of the Sternberg et al. (1978, 1980) prepared speech

Monitoring the Time Course of Phonological Encoding

Abstract Three experiments examined the time course of phonological encoding in speech production. A new methodology is introduced in which subjects are required to monitor their internal speech

Metrical structure in planning the production of spoken words

According to most models of speech production, the planning of spoken words involves the independent retrieval of segments and metrical frames followed by segment-to-frame association. In some

The time course of lexical access in speech production: A study of picture naming

Whether the selection of an item and its phonologi- cal encoding can be considered to occur in two successive, non- overlapping stages is examined.