# A Theory of Communicating Sequential Processes

@article{Brookes1984ATO, title={A Theory of Communicating Sequential Processes}, author={Stephen D. Brookes and Charles Antony Richard Hoare and Andrew William Roscoe}, journal={J. ACM}, year={1984}, volume={31}, pages={560-599} }

A mathematical model for communicating sequential processes isgiven, and a number of its interesting and useful properties arestated and proved. The possibilities of nondetermimsm are fullytaken into account.

## 1,395 Citations

### A state-based approach to communicating processes

- Computer ScienceDistributed Computing
- 2005

Communicating processes, which may exhibit nondeterministic behaviour, are specified as state-transition systems. Equivalence and refinement relations are defined in terms of the failures model of…

### A calculus for communicating systems with time and probabilities

- Mathematics[1990] Proceedings 11th Real-Time Systems Symposium
- 1990

A process algebra that extends R. Milner's (1983) calculus of communicating systems (CCS) with probabilities and time is presented. With this calculus it is possible to describe real-time and…

### A Process Algebra of Concurrent Constraint Programming

- Computer Science, MathematicsJICSLP
- 1992

We develop an algebraic theory for the observational equivalence of concurrent constraint programs which identifies processes which have the same final results for all possible executions.

### Communicating sequential processes

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1983

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When…

### An Improved Failures Model for Communicating Processes

- BusinessSeminar on Concurrency
- 1984

The failures model of communicating processes is extended to allow a more satisfactory treatment of divergence in addition to deadlock, and some connections are made with various models proposed by other authors.

### Quantales, Observational Logic and Process Semantics

- Computer ScienceMath. Struct. Comput. Sci.
- 1993

General completeness criteria are stated, and proved in applications, in which observations are taken as constituting a quantale.

### Bounded Nondeterminism and the Approximation Induction Principle in Process Algebra

- MathematicsSTACS
- 1987

A new semantics of ACPτ, the Algebra of Communicating Processes with abstraction is presented which is isomorphic to the model of process graphs modulo rooted τδ-bisimulation of Baeten, Bergstra & Klop.

### Descriptive and analytical process algebras

- MathematicsEuropean Workshop on Applications and Theory in Petri Nets
- 1988

The notion of process equivalence is introduced and its complete axiomatization is proposed.

### Polynomial-Time Analysis for a Class of Communicating processes

- Computer Science, MathematicsSymposium on Programming
- 1984

An algorithm is presented that runs in polynomial (quadratic) time for a significant class of communicating processes that represents a restriction of Milner's CCS to finite-state systems with one-to-one communication.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES

### Communicating sequential processes

- Computer ScienceCACM
- 1978

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When…

### An Improved Failures Model for Communicating Processes

- BusinessSeminar on Concurrency
- 1984

The failures model of communicating processes is extended to allow a more satisfactory treatment of divergence in addition to deadlock, and some connections are made with various models proposed by other authors.

### A Proof System for Communicating Sequential Processes

- Computer ScienceACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst.
- 1980

An axiomatic proof system is presented for proving partial correctness and absence of deadlock of communicating sequential processes, the key (meta) rule introduces cooperation between proofs, and CSP's new convention for distributed termination of loops is dealt with.

### A Complete Set of Axioms for a Theory of Communicating Sequential Processes

- Computer ScienceFCT
- 1983

This work defines formally this preorder and proves that it can be characterized as the smallest relation satisfying a particular set of axioms and shed lights on problems arising from the way divergence and underspecification are handled.

### Testing Equivalence for Processes

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceICALP
- 1983

This work shows how to define in a natural way three different equivalences on processes that are applied to a particular language CCS and gives associated complete proof systems and fully abstract models.

### A Calculus of Communicating Systems

- Computer ScienceLecture Notes in Computer Science
- 1980

A case study in synchronization and proof techniques, and some proofs about data structures in value-communication as a model of CCS 2.0.

### Proof rules for Communicating Sequential Processes

- Computer Science
- 1980

This thesis presents proof rules for an extension of Hoare's Communicating Sequential Processes, and presents an algorithm for globally synchronizing processes that can recognize that all processes are simultaneously in a given state.

### Proving the Correctness of Multiprocess Programs

- Computer ScienceIEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
- 1977

The inductive assertion method is generalized to permit formal, machine-verifiable proofs of correctness for multiprocess programs, represented by ordinary flowcharts, and no special synchronization mechanisms are assumed.

### Two Complete Axiom Systems for a Theory of Communicating Sequential Processes

- Computer ScienceInf. Control.
- 1985