A Tail of Transdifferentiation

  title={A Tail of Transdifferentiation},
  author={David L. Stocum},
  pages={1901 - 1903}
  • D. Stocum
  • Published 6 December 2002
  • Biology
  • Science
Salamanders have the enviable ability of being able to regenerate an amputated limb or tail. These amphibians have proven to be a valuable model of tissue regeneration. In his Perspective, Stocum discusses the first unequivocal evidence that salamander tail regeneration involves the ability of neural precusor cells of ectodermal origin to transdifferentiate into mesodermal cell types. 
The Urodele Limb Regeneration Blastema: The Cell Potential
Evidence asserts that the blastema is a heterogeneous mixture of progenitor cells derived from tissues of the amputation site, with limited developmental potential, plus various stem cells with multipotent abilities, including cells from the dermis that replenish dermal fibroblasts and differentiate into cartilage.
Early fin primordia of zebrafish larvae regenerate by a similar growth control mechanism with adult regeneration
Evidence that a similar cellular and molecular mechanism to adult regeneration operates in the repair process of early zebrafish fin primordia is presented, suggesting that the regeneration machinery directing cell proliferation in response to injury may exist from the early developmental stages.
Transdifferentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Keratinocyte-Like Cells: Engineering a Stratified Epidermis
It is demonstrated for the first time that adipose tissue is potentially a readily available and accessible source of keratinocytes, particularly for severe wounds encompassing large surface areas of the body and requiring prompt epithelialization.
Hemangioblastomas might derive from neoplastic transformation of neural stem cells/progenitors in the specific niche.
The data of the present study suggested that HBs might derive from neoplastic transformation of neural stem cells/progenitors in the specific niche, indicating HB niche dependency for the TICs derivative specification.
Angiogenesis: Vasculogenic mimicry and tumour-cell plasticity: lessons from melanoma
The gene-expression profile of aggressive cutaneous and uveal melanoma cells resembles that of an undifferentiated, embryonic-like cell, which could explain their ability to mimic the activities of endothelial cells and to participate in processes such as neovascularization and the formation of a fluid-conducting, matrix-rich meshwork.
Discovery of Populusone, a Skeletal Stimulator of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Populus euphratica Exudates.
Populusone (10 μM) was found to promote proliferation and differentiation of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells into keratinocyte like cells.
Reevaluation of in vitro differentiation protocols for bone marrow stromal cells: Disruption of actin cytoskeleton induces rapid morphological changes and mimics neuronal phenotype
The ability of cultured rat MSC to undergo in vitro osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis is confirmed, demonstrating differentiation of these cells to three mesenchymal cell fates, and changes in morphology upon addition of the chemical induction medium were caused by rapid disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.
Assessing Plasticity : The Populations Responsible for the Epithelial Engraftment on Marrow-Derived Cells
The results seem to implicate HSC subpopulations as enriched for highly plastic cells which are able to engraft as T2 cells in the lung, and hypothesize that both cell fusion and incidental entrapment of transplanted BMDCs are responsible.
Epigenetic transdifferentiation of normal melanocytes by a metastatic melanoma microenvironment.
A three-dimensional in vitro model that allows observations of normal human melanocytes interacting with a metastatic melanoma matrix to determine whether these normal cells could be reprogrammed by inductive cues in the tumor cell microenvironment shows the epigenetic transdifferentiation of the normal melanocytic phenotype to that of an aggressive melanoma-like cell with commensurate increased migratory and invasive ability.


Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated cells in amphibian regeneration
The recent demonstrations of plasticity in mouse myotubes should facilitate comparative studies of the pathways that underlie the regenerative response, as well as proposing new approaches to promote mammalian regeneration.
Ectoderm to Mesoderm Lineage Switching During Axolotl Tail Regeneration
Foreign environments may induce adult stem cells to switch lineages and populate multiple tissue types, but whether this mechanism is used for tissue repair remains uncertain. Urodele amphibians can
Mammalian myotube dedifferentiation induced by newt regeneration extract
It is indicated that mammalian myotubes can dedifferentiate when stimulated with the appropriate factors and suggest that one mechanism preventing dedifferentiation of mammalian cells is inadequate spatial or temporal expression of genes that initiate dedifferentiated cells.
Generalized potential of adult neural stem cells.
It is shown that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers, demonstrating that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity.
Stem-cell fusion: A twist of fate
The possibility has emerged that fusion could be a significant means by which cells might be 'reprogrammed' for a different function in adulthood.
Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice
It is demonstrated that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function.
Purification of a pluripotent neural stem cell from the adult mouse brain
It is shown that a predominant, functional type of stem cell exists in the periventricular region of the adult brain with the intrinsic ability to generate neural and non-neural cells.
Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo.
After transplantation into irradiated hosts, genetically labeled neural stem cells were found to produce a variety of blood cell types including myeloid and lymphoid cells as well as early hematopoietic cells, indicating that neuralstem cells appear to have a wider differentiation potential than previously thought.
Neural regeneration and the peripheral olfactory system
Cell renewal in the epithelium is directed to replace neurons when they die in normal animals and does so at an accelerated pace after damage to the olfactory nerve, and multiple growth factors are likely to be central in regulating choice points in epitheliopoiesis.