A Systematic Approach to Species–Level Identification of Chile Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Seeds: Establishing the Groundwork for Tracking the Domestication and Movement of Chile Peppers through the Americas and Beyond

  title={A Systematic Approach to Species–Level Identification of Chile Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Seeds: Establishing the Groundwork for Tracking the Domestication and Movement of Chile Peppers through the Americas and Beyond},
  author={Katherine L Chiou and Christine A. Hastorf},
  journal={Economic Botany},
A Systematic Approach to Species–Level Identification of Chile Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Seeds: Establishing the Groundwork for Tracking the Domestication and Movement of Chile Peppers through the Americas and Beyond The chile pepper (Capsicum spp.), a plant held in great esteem throughout history, was independently domesticated in a series of places including highland Bolivia, central Mexico, the Amazon, the Caribbean, and other locales with a particularly long history of cultivation and use in… 
UC Berkeley Archaeobotany Laboratory Report #82: Pachacamac, Peru archaeological Capsicum seed analysis,
“ establishing the groundwork for tracking the domestication and movement of chile peppers through the Americas and Beyond” suggests that Capsicum seeds are morphologically distinct and can be identified based on the preservation and several diagnostic attributes, leading to the identification of various Capsicum domesticates at those sites through a period of approximately 4,000 years.
Monograph of wild and cultivated chili peppers (Capsicum L., Solanaceae)
A comprehensive taxonomic treatment for the genus Capsicum is presented, including updated information about morphology, anatomy, karyology, phylogeny and distribution, including 43 species and five varieties, including C. chinense Jacq.
Morphological analysis of Late Pre-Hispanic Peruvian Chenopodium spp.
It is found that this assemblage of chenopod seeds recovered from the site Ayawiri, Peru does not morphologically conform to modern varieties, and these seeds are smaller than their modern counterparts.
Capsicum annuum (hot pepper): An ancient Latin-American crop with outstanding bioactive compounds and nutraceutical potential. A review.
How dietary chili and Capsicum annuum consumption, especially capsaicin, are involved in body weight reduction and their potential antiobesity effects, in urinary disorders, as well as antioxidants, antimicrobial, anticancer, and analgesic capacity is reported on.
Effect of Irrigation Frequency and Shade Levels on Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality of Piquin Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum)
The results indicate that more frequent irrigation and increased shade levels favored vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of a commercial ecotype of piquin pepper.
Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum peppers, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs.
Simple technologies and diverse food strategies of the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene at Huaca Prieta, Coastal Peru
The new findings emphasize an early coastal lifeway of diverse food procurement strategies that suggest detailed observation of resource availability in multiple environments and a knowledgeable economic organization, although technologies were simple and campsites were seemingly ephemeral and discontinuous.
Abstract Data from rock shelters in southern Belize show evidence of tool making, hunting, and aquatic resource exploitation by 10,500 cal b.c.; the shelters functioned as mortuary sites between 7600


Documenting Cultural Selection Pressure Changes on Chile Pepper (Capsicum baccatum L.) Seed Size Through Time in Coastal Peru (7,600 B.P.–Present)
The first systematic identification system based on qualitative and quantitative attributes for domesticated Capsicum seeds is developed, demonstrating that C. baccatum L. seeds increase in size through pre–Columbian times and change in size over time, suggesting human–influenced selection.
The Archaeological Record of Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.) and the Sequence of Plant Domestication in Peru
Abstract Study of archaeological material of chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) from the sites of Huaca Prieta and Punta Grande on the coast of Peru has shown that the first species to be cultivated was
Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico
The results suggest that food crops in Mexico had a multiregional origin with chili pepper originating in central-east Mexico, maize in the Balsas River Basin and common bean in the Lerma–Santiago River Basin, resembling similar finds for the Fertile Crescent and China.
Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.
The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications of C. annuum, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.
Distinguishing rice (Oryza sativa Poaceae) from wild Oryza species through Phytolith analysis: Results of preliminary research
Results of this research suggest that Oryza contributes phytoliths that are genus-specific, that bulliform characteristics alone do not permit separation of wild and domesticatedOryza in regions where species overlap, and that a number ofphytolith types, especially silicified glumes, show promise for separating wild from domesticated forms.
Starch Fossils and the Domestication and Dispersal of Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas
A genus-specific starch morphotype is reported that provides a means to identify chili peppers from archaeological contexts and trace both their domestication and dispersal.
Genetic Structure and Phylogenetic Relationships of Capsicum chinense
The study showed the existence of three phylogenetic clusters within Capsicum chinense, which may have potential for exploiting heterosis in breeding and the implications to the understanding of the phylogenetic origin and distribution of C. chinense are discussed.
Distinguishing rice (Oryza sativa poaceae) from wildOryza species through phytolith analysis, II Finalized method
Results of this follow-up study confirm that rice can be identified with a high level of certainty by the size and qualitative features of a distincitve phytolith, the double-peaked glume cell.
Phaseolus (Fabaceae) in Archaeology: AMS
Beans of several species were domesticated in tropical America thousands of years ago, to be combined with maize and other crops in highly successful New World agricultural systems. Radiocarbon dates
Genetic structure and differentiation of wild and domesticated populations of Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae) from Mexico
The high level of diversity found in wild populations of C. annuum suggests that the wild relatives of cultivated peppers are a valuable genetic resource which must be conserved.