A Survey on Technologies Which Make Bitcoin Greener or More Justified

@article{Heinonen2022ASO,
  title={A Survey on Technologies Which Make Bitcoin Greener or More Justified},
  author={Henri T. Heinonen and Alexander Semenov and Jari Veijalainen and Timo H{\"a}m{\"a}l{\"a}inen},
  journal={IEEE Access},
  year={2022},
  volume={10},
  pages={74792-74814}
}
According to recent estimates, one bitcoin transaction consumes as much energy as 1.5 million Visa transactions. Why is bitcoin using so much energy? Most of the energy is used during the bitcoin mining process, which serves at least two significant purposes: a) distributing new cryptocurrency coins to the cryptoeconomy and b) securing the Bitcoin blockchain ledger. In reality, the comparison of bitcoin transactions to Visa transactions is not that simple. The amount of transactions in the…