A Survey of Distributed Consensus Protocols for Blockchain Networks

  title={A Survey of Distributed Consensus Protocols for Blockchain Networks},
  author={Yang Xiao and Ning Zhang and Wenjing Lou and Y. Thomas Hou},
  journal={IEEE Communications Surveys \& Tutorials},
Since the inception of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies and the underlying blockchain technology have attracted an increasing interest from both academia and industry. [] Key Method To facilitate the discussion of our analysis, we first introduce the key definitions and relevant results in the classic theory of fault tolerance which helps to lay the foundation for further discussion.
MBCP: Performance Analysis of Large Scale Mainstream Blockchain Consensus Protocols
A performance matrix of mainstream consensus protocols based on different parameters like Degree of decentralization, Latency, Fault Tolerance Rate, Scalability, etc is proposed to help inappropriate protocol selection and further research on strengthening trust and ownership in the technology.
Performance Evaluation of Consensus Algorithms in Private Blockchain Networks
This work conducts a performance evaluation of these four consensus algorithms using Naive implementation of a blockchain network, and conducts experiments with two popular consensus mechanisms in Ethereum platform.
A Review of Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms: State of the Art and Performance Measures
This paper presents a systematic review of existing mainstream consensus mechanisms to highlight their strengths, impulsions and limitations, and the evolution of consensus mechanisms.
Why the new consensus mechanism is needed in blockchain technology?
  • Sana Naz, S. Lee
  • Mathematics
    2020 Second International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA)
  • 2020
The internal architecture of blockchain is described and five consensuses of the blockchain network are explained with its detailed comparative analysis of internal characteristic to help researchers understand the major characteristics that a given consensus offer for their work.
Consensus in Blockchain Systems with Low Network Throughput: A Systematic Mapping Study
Results show that consensus algorithms rely on the synchronous network for correctness cannot provide the expected integrity and such consensus algorithms may also be vulnerable to distributed-denial-of-service (DDOS) and routing attacks, given limited network throughput.
Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms and Their Applications in IoT: A Literature Survey
The requirements of consensus mechanisms in IoT networks are introduced to help researchers understand the connection of blockchain consensus mechanisms and IoT and the potential direction of Blockchain consensus designs are pointed out.
Smart Application Based Blockchain Consensus Protocols: A Systematic Mapping Study
Some previous and current consensus protocols of blockchain are described with the help of taxonomy which includes types and variants of protocols and the strength and weaknesses of existing and previous protocols are analysed.
A Survey on Consortium Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms
This paper highilights several state-of-the art solutions in consensus algorithms for enterprise blockchain and presents the operational mechanisms of these and other consensus protocols, and analyzes and compares their advantages and drawbacks.


Consensus in the Age of Blockchains
A systematic and comprehensive study of blockchain consensus protocols is conducted, developing a framework to evaluate their performance, security and design properties, and using it to systematize key themes in the protocol categories described above.
A Survey on Consensus Mechanisms and Mining Strategy Management in Blockchain Networks
This paper provides a systematic vision of the organization of the blockchain networks, a comprehensive survey of the emerging applications of blockchain networks in a broad area of telecommunication, and discusses several open issues in the protocol design for blockchain consensus.
Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild
The process of assessing and gaining confidence in the resilience of a consensus protocols exposed to faults and adversarial nodes is discussed, and the consensus protocols in some prominent permissioned blockchain platforms with respect to their fault models and resilience against attacks are reviewed.
Deconstructing Blockchains: A Comprehensive Survey on Consensus, Membership and Structure
This paper proposes an evaluation framework with insight into system models, desired properties and analysis criteria, using the decoupled components as criteria, and uses this framework to provide clear and intuitive overviews of the design principles behind the analyzed systems and the properties achieved.
A Vademecum on Blockchain Technologies: When, Which, and How
A general presentation of blockchain that goes beyond its usage in Bitcoin and surveying a selection of the vast literature that emerged in the last few years is given, drawing the key requirements and their evolution when passing from permissionless to permissioned blockchains.
SCP: A Computationally-Scalable Byzantine Consensus Protocol For Blockchains
A new blockchain Byzantine consensus protocol SCP where the throughput scales nearly linearly with the computation: the more computing power available, the more blocks selected per unit time, is designed.
Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol
This paper implements Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale, which is Byzantine fault tolerant, is robust to extreme churn, and shares the same trust model obviating qualitative changes to the ecosystem.
On the Security and Performance of Proof of Work Blockchains
This paper introduces a novel quantitative framework to analyse the security and performance implications of various consensus and network parameters of PoW blockchains and devise optimal adversarial strategies for double-spending and selfish mining while taking into account real world constraints.
Correctness and Fairness of Tendermint-core Blockchains
It is proved, for the first time in blockchain systems, that in repeated-consensus based blockchains there exists an (eventually) fair rewarding mechanism if and only if the system is (eventual) synchronous.
Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains
This paper describes Fabric, its architecture, the rationale behind various design decisions, its most prominent implementation aspects, as well as its distributed application programming model, and shows that Fabric achieves end-to-end throughput of more than 3500 transactions per second in certain popular deployment configurations.