A Surgical Method of Obtaining Liver Biopsies from Adult Swine for Use in Mineral Analysis


The balance and availability of trace minerals in swine has documented effects on various parameters of reproductive efficiency and performance (Mahan et al., 1974, and Wilkinson et al., 1977). Body stores, or reservoirs, of these elements are available in times of demand that may be mobilized for use. The liver serves as one such reservoir for many minerals including copper and zinc, which play vital roles in ensuring optimal reproductive performance (Mahan, 1990). It is documented that reservoir levels of trace minerals fluctuate as sows go through various phases of the production cycle such as gestation, farrowing and breeding (Mahan, 1990). Inefficiencies in reproductive performance can occur if reservoir levels become depleted, and are not adequately restored by dietary or supplemental means (Mahan, 1990). The ability to assess the available level of minerals in reservoirs, such as the liver, in representative pigs from all phases of a swine production unit, facilitates correction of deficiencies or imbalances and allows evaluation of the efficacy of various mineral sources in the breeding herd. Obtaining liver tissue for antemortem mineral analysis has been reported by means of laparotomy (Jensen, et al., 1990) and percutaneous (Simmons, 1971, Van Lith, et al., 1988, Swindle, 1983) biopsy. Performing a laparotomy in a field setting would be problematic due to the necessity of a sterile environment and inhalant anesthesia. In addition, a laparotomy on an adult pig would be labor intensive and time consuming. Detailed reports could not be found describing a successful percutaneous approach on pigs greater than 155 lb with or without the use of ultrasound guidance. However, ultrasound imaging equipment is cumbersome and expensive. In the field setting of a production unit, it would be of benefit to be able to consistently and safely obtain liver tissue without the use of ultrasound guidance. The objective of this study was to determine if liver biopsy samples of sufficient quantity for trace mineral analysis could be safely obtained percutaneously from adult swine without the aid of ultrasound guidance using a large diameter instrument. Experimental Procedures

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@inproceedings{Powell2006ASM, title={A Surgical Method of Obtaining Liver Biopsies from Adult Swine for Use in Mineral Analysis}, author={Jeremy G Powell and Kevin Washburn and Charles V . Maxwell and Elizabeth B. Kegley}, year={2006} }