Evaluation of interleukin-1β and 8 in gutka chewers with periodontitis among a rural Indian population
BACKGROUND Awareness towards tobacco hazards has increased with time but its role alone towards cessation is questionable. With widespread menace of tobacco in developing countries like India, not much tobacco chewing prevalence and their quitting patterns data are available in urban Saurashtra region. OBJECTIVES 1. To find out prevalence of various forms of chewing tobacco and quitting attitudes in urban Jamnagar. 2. To study quitting patterns in relation with age of habit initiation, family background and habit duration. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a cross-sectional study involving 2513 individuals as study population by 30-cluster sampling method. The study was carried out between June 2007 and March 2008. Pre-set, pre-tested questionnaire was used for interview purpose and the statistical analysis was done on proportion basis. RESULTS About 37.2% of study population was ever-tobacco-chewers; 32.9% of them were current-chewers and 4.3% were quitters. Approximately 28.4% of current-consumers were willing to quit. Mawa-masala (63.7%) and Gutka (57.6%) were preferred forms of chewing tobacco and 57.5% of the current-chewers chewed tobacco six to eight times a day. Tobacco initiation age between 20 and 30 years was commoner among quitters (84.2%), while a little younger in current-consumers (76.5%). About 58.3% quitters and 74.0% chewers showing willingness to quit had not consumed tobacco for more than five years, 63.8% of current-chewers had a family member consuming tobacco. With initiation of health problems, 72.2% subjects quit and 55.5% of them already knew about health hazards. CONCLUSIONS Every 4 out of 10 residents was found to be exposed to chewing tobacco. With Mawa-masala and Gutka being the predominant forms, habit onset in late adolescence, years of consumption and family exposure seem to be hampering quitting. Awareness about tobacco hazards alone does not appear to be resulting in successful quitting.