A Strain of an Emerging Indian Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathotype Defeats the Rice Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene xa13 Without Inducing a Clade III SWEET Gene and Is Nearly Identical to a Recent Thai Isolate

@article{Carpenter2018ASO,
  title={A Strain of an Emerging Indian Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathotype Defeats the Rice Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene xa13 Without Inducing a Clade III SWEET Gene and Is Nearly Identical to a Recent Thai Isolate},
  author={Sara C.D. Carpenter and Prashant Kumar Mishra and Chandrika Ghoshal and Prasanta Kumar Dash and Li Wang and Samriti Midha and Gouri Shankar Laha and Jagjeet Singh Lore and Wichai Kositratana and Nagendra Kumar Singh and Kuldeep Singh and Prabhu B. Patil and Ricardo Oliva and Sujin Patarapuwadol and Adam J. Bogdanove and Rhitu Rai},
  journal={Frontiers in Microbiology},
  year={2018},
  volume={9}
}
The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) injects transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) that bind and activate host “susceptibility” (S) genes important for disease. Clade III SWEET genes are major S genes for bacterial blight. The resistance genes xa5, which reduces TALE activity generally, and xa13, a SWEET11 allele not recognized by the cognate TALE, have been effectively deployed. However, strains that defeat both resistance genes individually were… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight in rice using genome editing

Paddy trials showed that genome-edited SWEET promoters endow rice lines with robust, broad-spectrum resistance to all Xanthomonas bacterial blight strains tested.

Complete genome dynamics of a dominant-lineage strain of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae harbouring a novel plasmid encoding a type IV secretion system

The complete genome sequence analysis of BXO1 has provided detailed insights into the two novel strain-specific plasmids, in addition to decoding their functional capabilities, which were not assessable when using the draft genome sequence of the strain.

Disease Resistance and Susceptibility Genes to Bacterial Blight of Rice

Results indicate that pathogen and host are currently in a battle over a small patch of ground involving TALes function, and the basic processes of BB present rich targets for the rapid advances in genome editing.

Extensive Genomic Rearrangements along with Distinct Mobilome and TALome are Associated with Extreme Pathotypes of a Rice Pathogen

Overall, the present study indicates the possible role of mobilomes and repetitive elements in major structural and sequence alterations, which may be leading to the emergence of novel and extreme pathotypes of Xoo.

Diagnostic kit for rice blight resistance

A diagnostic kit to enable analysis of bacterial blight in the field and identification of suitable resistant lines and two resistant ‘mega’ rice lines that will empower farmers to plant lines that are most likely to resist rice blight are described.

Precise CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Genome Editing in Super Basmati Rice for Resistance Against Bacterial Blight by Targeting the Major Susceptibility Gene

The findings showed that CRISPR-Cas9 can be harnessed to generate resistance against bacterial blight in indigenous varieties, against locally prevalent Xoo strains.

The genetic arms race between plant and Xanthomonas: lessons learned from TALE biology

The most recent advances in the evolutionary arms race between plant resistance and TALEs from Xanthomonas are reviewed, with a specific focus on TALE applications in the development of novel breeding strategies for durable and broad-spectrum resistance.

Advances in the Xoo-rice pathosystem interaction and its exploitation in disease management.

To combat the infection from the existing races and to slow down the emergence of new Xoo races, pyramiding two or more R genes was found to be effective against bacterial blight disease.

Population genomics and pathotypic evaluation of the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice

Through population genomics and large-scale pathotypic evaluation of more than 240 Xoo strains isolated in China during the past 30 years, it is found that the genome evolution and virulence dynamics of Xoo are extraordinary rapid, indicating its ability to overcome the resistance conferred by the current resistance genes and the potential for large- scale outbreaks in the future.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES

A strain of an emerging Indian pathotype of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae defeats the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 without inducing a clade III SWEET gene and is nearly identical to a recent Thai isolate

The Indian strain induced no clade III SWEET in plants harbouring xa13, indicating a pathogen adaptation that relieves dependence on these genes for susceptibility and illustrates the importance of complete genome sequence-based monitoring of Xoo populations in developing varieties with effective disease resistance.

Gene targeting by the TAL effector PthXo2 reveals cryptic resistance gene for bacterial blight of rice.

Bacterial blight of rice is caused by the γ-proteobacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which utilizes a group of type III TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors to induce host gene

Five phylogenetically close rice SWEET genes confer TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

It is predicted and validated that expression of OsSWEET14 is induced by a novel TAL effector, Tal5, from an African Xoo strain, and efficiently complemented an Xoo talC mutant, demonstrating that specific induction of OsC is the key target of TalC.

Broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight in rice using genome editing

Paddy trials showed that genome-edited SWEET promoters endow rice lines with robust, broad-spectrum resistance to all Xanthomonas bacterial blight strains tested.

Interfering TAL effectors of Xanthomonas oryzae neutralize R-gene-mediated plant disease resistance

It is shown that the rice gene Xa1, encoding a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein, confers resistance against X. oryzae isolates by recognizing multiple TALEs, but the iTALEs present in many isolates interfere with the otherwise broad-spectrum resistance conferred by Xa 1.

Targeted promoter editing for rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae reveals differential activities for SWEET14‐inducing TAL effectors

This work offers the first set of alleles edited in TalC EBE and uncovers a distinct, broader range of activities for TalC compared to AvrXa7 or Tal5, suggesting the existence of additional targets forTalC beyond SWEET14, suggesting that TALE‐mediated plant susceptibility may result from induction of several, genetically redundant, host susceptibility genes by a single effector.

Code-Assisted Discovery of TAL Effector Targets in Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice Reveals Contrast with Bacterial Blight and a Novel Susceptibility Gene

The number of known TAL effector targets is expanded, a new class of S gene is identified, and the ability to predict functional targeting is improved, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future.

A paralog of the MtN3/saliva family recessively confers race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae in rice.

The characterization of another recessive resistance gene, xa25, for Xoo resistance, which mediates race-specific resistance to Xoo strain PXO339 at both seedling and adult stages by inhibiting Xoo growth encodes a protein of the MtN3/saliva family, which is prevalent in eukaryotes, including mammals.

The broadly effective recessive resistance gene xa5 of rice is a virulence effector-dependent quantitative trait for bacterial blight.

It is shown that the broadly effective resistance gene xa5, for resistance to bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa), is dependent on the effector genes present in the pathogen, and functions as a quantitative trait locus, dampening effector function, and, regardless of compatibility, target gene expression.

Rice xa13 Recessive Resistance to Bacterial Blight Is Defeated by Induction of the Disease Susceptibility Gene Os-11N3[W][OA]

Variations in the TAL effector repetitive domains are driven by selection to overcome both dominant and recessive forms of resistance to bacterial blight in rice, indicating that N3 proteins have a specific function in facilitating bacterial blight disease.
...