A Siphonotid Millipede (Rhinotus) as the Source of Spiropyrrolizidine Oximes of Dendrobatid Frogs

@article{Saporito2004ASM,
  title={A Siphonotid Millipede (Rhinotus) as the Source of Spiropyrrolizidine Oximes of Dendrobatid Frogs},
  author={Ralph A. Saporito and Maureen A. Donnelly and Richard L. Hoffman and H Martin Garraffo and John W. Daly},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={29},
  pages={2781-2786}
}
Poison frogs of the neotropical family Dendrobatidae contain a wide variety of lipophilic alkaloids, which are accumulated from alkaloid-containing arthropods. A small millipede, Rhinotus purpureus (Siphonotidae), occurs microsympatrically with the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates pumilio on Isla Bastimentos, Bocas del Toro Province, Panamá. Methanol extracts of this millipede contain the spiropyrrolizidine O-methyloxime 236, an alkaloid previously known only from skin extracts of poison frogs… Expand
Variability of alkaloid profiles in Oophaga pumilio (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from western Panama and southern Nicaragua*
Ethanol extracts from Oophaga pumilio specimens collected in western Panama (4 populations) and southern Nicaragua (two populations) were analyzed for their alkaloid composition by gasExpand
Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs.
TLDR
The presence of pumiliotoxins in formicine ants of the genera Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina, as well as the presence of these ants in the stomach contents of the microsympatric pumiliaotoxin-containing dendrobatid frog, Dendrobates pumilio, support the significance of ant-specialization and alkaloid sequestration in the evolution of bright warning coloration in poison frogs and toads. Expand
Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds.
TLDR
The presence of high levels of batrachotoxins in a little-studied group of beetles, genus Choresine (family Melyridae), and their high toxin concentrations suggest that they might provide a toxin source for the New Guinea birds. Expand
Alkaloids in Bufonid Toads (Melanophryniscus): Temporal and Geographic Determinants for Two Argentinian Species
TLDR
The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in availability of alkaloids from dietary arthropods, and that of M. rubriventris from four locations in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina strongly differed. Expand
PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS OF DART-POISON FROGS AND THEIR RELATIVES (AMPHIBIA: ATHESPHATANURA: DENDROBATIDAE)
TLDR
A new, monophyletic taxonomy for dendrobatids is proposed, recognizing the inclusive clade as a superfamily (Dendrobatoidea) composed of two families (one of which is new), six subfamilies (three new), and 16 genera (four new). Expand
Individual and Geographic Variation of Skin Alkaloids in Three Species of Madagascan Poison Frogs (Mantella)
TLDR
Alkaloid compositions in mantellid poison frogs are diverse and highly dependent on geographic location that appear to be largely determined by the nature and availability of alkaloid-containing prey items. Expand
A Review of Chemical Defense in Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae): Ecology, Pharmacokinetics, and Autoresistance
TLDR
A summary of the ecological and evolutionary contexts underlying the origin and maintenance of chemical defenses across Dendrobatidae is presented and aspects of the pharmacokinetics of acquiring defensive substances in these amphibians are reviewed. Expand
ARTHROPOD ALKALOIDS IN POISON FROGS : A REVIEW OF THE 'DIETARY HYPOTHESIS'
Poison frogs are chemically defended from predators and/or microorganisms by the presence of alkaloids in dermal skin glands. Over the past 40 years, more than 800 alkaloids, which are generallyExpand
First characterization of toxic alkaloids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cryptic dendrobatid Silverstoneia punctiventris
Background Poison frogs are known for the outstanding diversity of alkaloid-based chemical defences with promising therapeutic applications. However, current knowledge about chemical defences inExpand
Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens
TLDR
The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkAloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Dietary source for skin alkaloids of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae)?
TLDR
The results indicate a dietary origin for at least some “dendrobatid alkaloids,” in particular the pyrrolizidine oximes, the tricyclic coccinellines, and perhaps the histrionicotoxins and gephyrotoxins. Expand
Arthropod–Frog Connection: Decahydroquinoline and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Common to Microsympatric Myrmicine Ants and Dendrobatid Frogs
TLDR
Panamanian poison frogs raised in a large, screened, outdoor cage and provided for six months with leaf-litter from the frog's natural habitat, accumulated a variety of alkaloids into the skin, including two isomers of the ant pyrrolizidine 251K and two isomer of the 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 195B. Expand
Alkaloids from bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus): decahydroquinolines, pumiliotoxins and homopumiliotoxins, indolizidines, pyrrolizidines, and quinolizidines.
TLDR
Skins of bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus contain several classes of alkaloids, including precoccinelline [193A] and alkaloid 236, an oxime methyl ether, which are present in one population of Melanophile toads stelzneri. Expand
Alkaloids from Australian frogs (Myobatrachidae): pseudophrynamines and pumiliotoxins.
TLDR
Australian frogs of the genus Pseudophryne contain two distinct classes of alkaloids: pseudophrynamines and pumiliotoxins, which were the predominant class in both species from Western Australia and all of the eastern species. Expand
Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: Combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source
TLDR
“combinatorial bioprospecting” demonstrates that further collection and analysis of individual taxa of leaf-litter arthropods should reveal the taxa from which PTX, alloPTXs, and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines are derived. Expand
Buzonamine, a new alkaloid from the defensive secretion of the millipede, Buzonium crassipes.
TLDR
GC-MS analysis of the defensive secretion from the millipede Buzonium crassipes showed three volatile components, beta-pinene, limonene and buzonamine, which kept the mound nesting ant, Formica obscuripes, from eating mealworms treated with 1mg of the chemical. Expand
Defensive Secretions of Millipeds
The millipeds, comprising the arthropodan class Diplopoda, are a relatively uniform and unspectacular lot. Generally slow and sluggish despite their many legs, they are for the most part furtiveExpand
Spiropyrrolizidines: a new class of blockers of nicotinic receptors.
TLDR
Spiropyrrolizidines represent a new structural class of blockers of nicotinic receptor channels with selectivity for ganglionic-type receptors in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in human medulloblastoma TE671 cells. Expand
References
  • 1971
11. Brunck W: Die systematische untersuchung des sprachorgans bei angeborenen gaumendefekte. Diss Leipiz 1906 (from Meissner). 12. Commichau G, Oeken FW: Pneumatisationsverhaitnisse belExpand
...
1
2
...