A Siphonotid Millipede (Rhinotus) as the Source of Spiropyrrolizidine Oximes of Dendrobatid Frogs

@article{Saporito2004ASM,
  title={A Siphonotid Millipede (Rhinotus) as the Source of Spiropyrrolizidine Oximes of Dendrobatid Frogs},
  author={Ralph A. Saporito and Maureen A. Donnelly and Richard L. Hoffman and H Martin Garraffo and John W. Daly},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={29},
  pages={2781-2786}
}
Poison frogs of the neotropical family Dendrobatidae contain a wide variety of lipophilic alkaloids, which are accumulated from alkaloid-containing arthropods. A small millipede, Rhinotus purpureus (Siphonotidae), occurs microsympatrically with the dendrobatid frog Dendrobates pumilio on Isla Bastimentos, Bocas del Toro Province, Panamá. Methanol extracts of this millipede contain the spiropyrrolizidine O-methyloxime 236, an alkaloid previously known only from skin extracts of poison frogs… 

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Melyrid beetles (Choresine): a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds.

The presence of high levels of batrachotoxins in a little-studied group of beetles, genus Choresine (family Melyridae), and their high toxin concentrations suggest that they might provide a toxin source for the New Guinea birds.

Alkaloids in Bufonid Toads (Melanophryniscus): Temporal and Geographic Determinants for Two Argentinian Species

The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in availability of alkaloids from dietary arthropods, and that of M. rubriventris from four locations in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina strongly differed.

PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS OF DART-POISON FROGS AND THEIR RELATIVES (AMPHIBIA: ATHESPHATANURA: DENDROBATIDAE)

A new, monophyletic taxonomy for dendrobatids is proposed, recognizing the inclusive clade as a superfamily (Dendrobatoidea) composed of two families (one of which is new), six subfamilies (three new), and 16 genera (four new).

Piperidine alkaloids from fire ants are not sequestered by the green and black poison frog (Dendrobates auratus)

It is possible that D. auratus are unable to sequester fire ant piperidines due to their long hydrocarbon side chains, a feature that makes them structurally different than most known alkaloids in poison frogs.

Individual and Geographic Variation of Skin Alkaloids in Three Species of Madagascan Poison Frogs (Mantella)

Alkaloid compositions in mantellid poison frogs are diverse and highly dependent on geographic location that appear to be largely determined by the nature and availability of alkaloid-containing prey items.

A Review of Chemical Defense in Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae): Ecology, Pharmacokinetics, and Autoresistance

A summary of the ecological and evolutionary contexts underlying the origin and maintenance of chemical defenses across Dendrobatidae is presented and aspects of the pharmacokinetics of acquiring defensive substances in these amphibians are reviewed.

ARTHROPOD ALKALOIDS IN POISON FROGS : A REVIEW OF THE 'DIETARY HYPOTHESIS'

The most significant findings and studies that led to the proposal of the 'dietary hypothesis', which states that most of these alkaloids are sequestered unchanged from dietary arthropods, are reviewed.

First characterization of toxic alkaloids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the cryptic dendrobatid Silverstoneia punctiventris

This study establishes HS-SPME/GC-MS as a new application for a simultaneous approach to amphibian alkaloids and VOCs in poison frogs while opens up new research questions to assess the co-occurrence of both type of compounds and to investigate the evolutionary significance of a defence gradient that includes olfactory avoidance, unpalatability, and toxicity in dendrobatids.

Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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