Increased Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Reduces Renal Cell Apoptosis During Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury After Hypothermic Machine Perfusion.
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) has never been attempted in India because of legal constraints and lack of guidelines for the withdrawal of life support in end-of-life situations. The present report describes the initial experience of transplantation of organs from DCD donors in a tertiary care center in India. Between 2011 and 2015, five donors had kidneys retrieved after cardiac arrest. These patients were declared dead after waiting for 5 min with no electrocardiographic signal on monitor following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which was restarted in three patients till organ retrieval. All donors received heparin and underwent rapid cannulation of aorta, infusion of preservative cold solution, and immediate surface cooling of organs during retrieval surgery. 9/10 kidneys were utilized. Mean donor age was 29.6 ± 16.3 years, M:F 4:1 and mean age of recipients was 38.7 ± 10.8 years, M:F 7:2. Seven patients required dialysis in postoperative period. Mean postoperative day 0 urine output was 1.9 ± 2.6 L. Baseline creatinine achieved was 1.38 ± 0.35 mg/dl after a mean duration of 26.12 ± 15.4 days. Kidneys from donors where CPR was continued after the declaration of death (n = 3) had better recovery of renal function (time to reach baseline creatinine 21.2 ± 7.2 vs. 34.3 ± 23.7 days, baseline creatinine 1.36 ± 0.25 vs. 1.52 ± 0.45 mg%). In donors without CPR, one kidney never functioned and others had patchy cortical necrosis on protocol biopsy, which was not seen in the kidneys from donors with CPR. Kidneys from DCD donors can serve as a useful adjunct in deceased donor program. Continuing CPR after the declaration of death seems to help in improving outcomes.