We also should be able to adapt content for new devices that were not envisioned when the content was created. In addition, it is important to be able to adapt existing content that may not have been created with this multi-channel deployment model in mind. I. Terminology The problem of device-independent authoring is closely related to the issues of authoring applications to be rendered in different modalities or multiple synchronized modalities [1,3]. In this paper, we use terminology introduced in . 2. Introduction For the mobile internet, new content and applications are developed with the intent of delivering it through many different channels with different characteristics. Therefore such content and applications must be adapted and optimized to each channel. Also, since new devices and content emerge continuously, this adaptation must be made to work for new devices not originally envisioned. This is also related to accessibility . In addition, it is important to be able to adapt existing content that may not have been created with this multichannel or multi-modal deployment model in mind. Eventually, multiple authoring is an even more complex problem if synchronization is needed across channels. Indeed, with multiple authoring approaches, the application developer must explicitly author how the different channels (or views) of the applications must be synchronized. These approaches lead to combinatorial explosion of the authoring tasks: between every pair, or more, of channel to synchronize and whenever different granularity of synchronization are required.