A Simple Cipher Governs DNA Recognition by TAL Effectors

  title={A Simple Cipher Governs DNA Recognition by TAL Effectors},
  author={Matthew J. Moscou and Adam J. Bogdanove},
  pages={1501 - 1501}
TAL Order Xanthomonas bacteria attack their plant hosts by delivering their own transcription-activator–like (TAL) proteins into the plant cell nucleus and alter the plant's gene regulation (see the Perspective by Voytas and Joung). Moscou and Bogdanove (p. 1501, published online 29 October: see the cover) and Boch et al. (p. 1509, published online 29 October) have now discovered how the similar but not identical repeats in the TAL proteins encode the specificity needed for the proteins to find… 

TAL effector-DNA specificity

The predicted DNA specificities of TAL effectors were predicted and artificial TAL proteins with novel DNA recognition specificities were generated, enabling design of proteins with potentially any given DNA recognition specificity enabling many uses for biotechnology.

Structural Basis for Sequence-Specific Recognition of DNA by TAL Effectors

Wrapped DNA TAL effectors are proteins that bacterial pathogens inject into plant cells that bind to host DNA to activate expression of plant genes. The DNA-binding domain of TAL proteins is composed

TAL effectors from Xanthomonas: design of a programmable DNA-binding specificity

A method called "Golden TAL Technology" is developed that allows a flexible assembly of TAL proteins with a designed order of repeats, which allows a simple reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity.

[Molecular recognition code between pathogenic bacterial TAL-effectors and host target genes: a review].

The findings and functions of TAL effectors, the binding specificity and recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes, and the possible applications and future prospects of the molecular recognition code have been discussed.

The Crystal Structure of TAL Effector PthXo1 Bound to Its DNA Target

The crystal structure of PthXo1 bound to its DNA target was determined by high-throughput computational structure prediction and validated by heavy-atom derivatization, and illustrates the basis of TAL effector–DNA recognition.

Predicting promoters targeted by TAL effectors in plant genomes: from dream to reality

An overview of the current tools and strategies that may be applied for finding targets of TAL effectors is given and several perspectives offered by these new tools are highlighted.

TAL effectors are remote controls for gene activation.

The Use and Development of TAL Effector Nucleases

The discovery of a novel DNA binding domain derived from transcription activator-like effectors of the plant pathogen genus Xanthomonas set the stage for the generation of various designer proteins by fusing tailored TALE-based DNA binding domains with either endonucleases, transcriptional modulators or chromatin remodeling domains with the final purpose to modify the genome, the transcriptome or the epigenome.

[Advances in transcription activator-like effectors--a review].

This work reviewed the development of this technology in multi-level and multi species, and its advantages and disadvantages compared with ZFNs and CRISPR/Cas technology, and addressed its special advantages in industrial microbe breeding, vector construction, targeting precision, high efficiency of editing and biological safety.



A Bacterial Effector Acts as a Plant Transcription Factor and Induces a Cell Size Regulator

It is shown that AvrBs3 induces the expression of a master regulator of cell size, upa20, which encodes a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop-helix domain that provokes developmental reprogramming of host cells by mimicking eukaryotic transcription factors.

Plant Pathogen Recognition Mediated by Promoter Activation of the Pepper Bs3 Resistance Gene

The data suggest a recognition mechanism in which the Avr protein binds and activates the promoter of the cognate R gene, and a recognition specificity resides in the Bs3 and Bs2-E promoters and is determined by binding of Avr3 or AvrBs3Δrep16 to a defined promoter region.

Characterization of AvrHah1, a novel AvrBs3-like effector from Xanthomonas gardneri with virulence and avirulence activity.

Phylogenetic analysis revealed that, although AvrBs3 and AvrHah1 are only distantly related, they share blocks of high homology within potentially solvent-exposed repeat units, which suggest that the recognition specificity of AvRBs3-like proteins is predominantly determined by solvent- Exposed residues, rather than by overall homology or repeat unit length.

Os8N3 is a host disease-susceptibility gene for bacterial blight of rice

The findings indicate that Os8N3 is a host susceptibility gene for bacterial blight targeted by the type III effector PthXo1, and support a model in which the pathogen induces disease susceptibility in a gene-for-gene manner.

R gene expression induced by a type-III effector triggers disease resistance in rice

Xa 27 specificity towards incompatible pathogens involves the differential expression of the R gene in the presence of the AvrXa27 effector.

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