A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones

  title={A Silurian placoderm with osteichthyan-like marginal jaw bones},
  author={Min Zhu and Xiaobo Yu and Per Erik Ahlberg and Brian Choo and Jing Lu and Tuo Qiao and Qingming Qu and Wenjin Zhao and Liantao Jia and Henning Blom and You-an Zhu},
The gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) crown group comprises two extant clades with contrasting character complements. [] Key Result A phylogenetic analysis places the new form near the top of the gnathostome stem group but does not fully resolve its relationships to other placoderms. The analysis also assigns all acanthodians to the chondrichthyan stem group. These results suggest that the last common ancestor of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes had a macromeric dermal skeleton, and provide a new framework for…

A Silurian maxillate placoderm illuminates jaw evolution

A second Silurian maxillate placoderm is described that more securely bridges the jawless toothlike plates of placoderms to the development of the jawed condition that ultimately led to the three-boned jaw in ancestors of modern vertebrates.

Spiny chondrichthyan from the lower Silurian of South China

Modern representatives of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods) have contrasting skeletal anatomies and developmental trajectories1–4 that underscore

Endochondral bone in an Early Devonian ‘placoderm’ from Mongolia

The discovery of extensive endochondral bone in Minjinia turgenensis, a new genus and species of ‘placoderm’-like fish from the Early Devonian of western Mongolia described using x-ray computed microtomography, provides direct support for theories of generalised bone loss in chondrichthyans.

Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome

A conjunction of well-developed cranial processes in Janusiscus helps unify the comparative anatomy of early jawed vertebrate neurocrania, clarifying primary homologies in ‘placoderms’, osteichthyans and chondrichthyans.

An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan

Preliminary phylogenetic results highlight the likely convergent evolution of conventional chondrichthyan conditions among earliest members of this primary gnathostome division, while skeletal morphology points towards the likely suspension feeding habits of Gladbachus, suggesting a functional origin of the gill slit condition characteristic of the vast majority of living and fossil chondRichthyans.

Squamation and scale morphology at the root of jawed vertebrates

This study reveals that the high regionalization of squamation and the bipartite histological structure of scale might be plesiomorphic for antiarchs, and jawed vertebrates in general.

Morphology and histology of acanthodian fin spines from the late Silurian Ramsasa E locality, Skane, Sweden

The results support the current hypothesis of gnathostome phylogeny, which places "acanthodians" on the chondrichthyan stem and emphasize the need for further study of vertebrate fin spines using 3D approaches.

Endocast and bony labyrinth of a stem gnathostome shed light on the earliest diversification of jawed vertebrates

The endocranial cavity and inner ear of Brindabellaspis stensioi is described, commonly recovered as a taxon of uncertain affinity branching near the base of ‘placoderms’, and its results call into question the appropriateness of fusiform ’placoderm’ as models of primitive gnathostome anatomy and raise questions of homology relating to key cranial features.

Acanthodian dental development and the origin of gnathostome dentitions.

It is shown that ischnacanthid marginal dentitions were statodont, composed of multicuspidate teeth added in distally diverging rows and through proximal superpositional replacement, while their symphyseal tooth whorls are comparable to chondrichthyan and osteichthyan counterparts.



Jaws and teeth of the earliest bony fishes

Andreolepis and Lophosteus are not only the oldest but also the most phylogenetically basal securely identified osteichthyans known so far, indicating that they can be assigned to the stem group.

The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters

The discovery of an exceptionally preserved primitive fish from the Ludlow of Yunnan, China, that represents the oldest near-complete gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) offers insights into the origin and early divergence of osteichthyans, and indicates that the minimum date for the actinopterygian–sarcoperygian split was no later than 419 million years ago.

Vascularization of the osteostracan and antiarch (Placodermi) pectoral fin: similarities, and implications for placoderm relationships

Observations suggest that these placoderm groups are more closely related to other jawed fishes than are the Antiarchi, challenging the monophyly of the Placodermi.

Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes

A new description of the Acanthodes braincase is presented, yielding new details of external and internal morphology, notably the regions surrounding and within the ear capsule and neurocranial roof that contribute to a new reconstruction that, unexpectedly, resembles early chondrichthyan crania.

A primitive fossil fish sheds light on the origin of bony fishes

This first tentative reconstruction of a 400-million-year-old fossil fish from China is presented, which changes the polarity of many characters used at present in reconstructing osteichthyan inter-relationships and offers new insights into the origin and evolution of osteichthyans.

The braincase and jaws of a Devonian ‘acanthodian’ and modern gnathostome origins

The first-known braincase of an Early Devonian acanthodian is presented, andylogenetic analysis resolves Ptomacanthus as either the most basal chondrichthyan or as the sister group of all living gnathostomes, to provide a more detailed picture of the acquisition of early Gnathostome characters.

Fossil Fishes from China Provide First Evidence of Dermal Pelvic Girdles in Osteichthyans

The first discovery of spine-bearing dermal pelvic girdles in early osteichthyans is reported, based on a new articulated specimen of Guiyu oneiros from the Late Ludlow (Silurian) Kuanti Formation, Yunnan, as well as a re-examination of the previously described holotype.

New Morphological Information on the Ptyctodontid Fishes (Placodermi, Ptyctodontida) from Western Australia

ABSTRACT A full description of a complete and articulated, three-dimensionally preserved, placoderm fish, Materpiscis attenboroughi (Ptyctodontida), from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation is


  • J. Maisey
  • Biology
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 1986
A cladistic analysis of chordates is presented, based on some 320 nested characters, thereby reopening the possibility of a closer relationship between tetrapods and osteolepiform rhipidistians.

Placoderms (Armored Fish): Dominant Vertebrates of the Devonian Period

Placoderms, the most diverse group of Devonian fishes, were globally distributed in all habitable freshwater and marine environments, like teleost fishes in the modern fauna, and recent claims that they form a paraphyletic group are based on highly derived Late Devonian forms.