author={Barney Pell},
  journal={Computational Intelligence},
  • B. Pell
  • Published 1 August 1994
  • Computer Science
  • Computational Intelligence
This paper introduces METAGAMER, the first program designed within the paradigm of Metagame‐playing (Metagame). This program plays games in the class of symmetric chess‐like games, which includes chess, Chinese chess, checkers, draughts, and Shogi. METAGAMER takes as input the rules of a specific game and analyzes those rules to construct an efficient representation and an evaluation function for that game; they are used by a generic search engine. The strategic analysis performed by METAGAMER… 
A general reinforcement learning algorithm that masters chess, shogi, and Go through self-play
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CADIA-Player : a general game playing agent
CADIAPlayer is a GGP agent that uses Monte Carlo rollouts with upper confidence bounds for trees (UCT) as its main search procedure and outperforms naïve Monte Carlo by close to 90% winning ratio on average on a wide range of games, including Checkers and Othello.
Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm
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CadiaPlayer: A Simulation-Based General Game Player
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General Board Game Concepts
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Generating Search Knowledge in a Class of Games
The Introspect system that generates search knowledge for different games is presented and the consequences of different choices that can be made when designing the domain theory are analyzed.
Simulation-Based Approach to General Game Playing
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Simulation-Based General Game Playing
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Differences between Shogi and western Chess from a computational point of view
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General Board Game Playing for Education and Research in Generic AI Game Learning
  • W. Konen
  • Computer Science
    2019 IEEE Conference on Games (CoG)
  • 2019
A new general board game (GBG) playing and learning framework that makes a generic TD(λ)-n-tuple agent for the first time available to arbitrary games and helps students to start faster in the area of game learning.


METAGAME : A New Challenge for Games and Learning
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A game-learning machine
Both the test results and the performance of the program con rm the results of the analysis which indicate that consistency search improves game playing performance for su ciently accurate evaluation functions.
Chinook is the strongest 8 × 8 checkers program around today. Its strength is largely a result of brute-force methods. The program is capable of searching to depths that make it a feared tactician.
Best Play for Imperfect Players and Game Tree Search; part I - theory
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A Problem-Solver for Making Advice Operational
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Chess as problem solving: the development of a tactics analyzer.
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In the spring of 1970 at the Adriatic resort town of Herzeg-Novi, the strongest speed tournament of all time was held and Bobby Fischer won the double round robin with the amazing score of 19 points (out of a possible 22).
Adaptive Pattern-Oriented Chess
Chess Skill in Man and Machine
The heuristic search: An alternative to the alpha-beta minimax procedure and chess thinking: Man versus machine.