A Review of the Effects of Social Interaction On Vocal Learning in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus)

  title={A Review of the Effects of Social Interaction On Vocal Learning in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus)},
  author={Irene M. Pepperberg},
  journal={Netherlands Journal of Zoology},
Studies on vocal learning must examine not only what is learned but also how the form of input affects the learning process. Research on learning suggests that input is acquired most readily if it is 'natural'-what psychologists term referential, contextually applicable, and socially interactive. Specifically, researchers have shown that what is learned, when it is learned, and how the learned material is used can be affected by the extent and form of the social interaction between tutor and… 


The data suggest that, even for birds known for their mimetic abilities, social interaction, reference, and full contextual experience are important factors in learning to produce and comprehend an allospecific code.

Effect of avian-human joint attention on allospecific vocal learning by grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

The authors contrasted training in which joint attention was present or absent and found that 2 parrots did not learn in the absence of joint attention but did learn English labels when full interaction was present.

Vocal learning in the Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus): effects of species identity and number of trainers.

Specific aspects of paired tutoring seem critical for acquiring referential vocal labels, and 2-trainer modeling with training by 1 human who presented targeted labels to a bird in concert with appropriate items, who asked questions, and who would reward attempts at the label with the item.

S01-4 Social aspects of song learning and repertoire use in birds

The results point to strategies of song learning and use that appear flexible in either sex and which in males reflect an adaptation for using large repertoires of different songs as well.

Constraints on vocal production learning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates)

It is shown that budgerigars, under operant control, can learn to respond to specific stimuli with a specific vocal response, and this results highlight the significant role that social interaction likely plays in vocal production learning so elegantly shown by Irene Pepperberg’s work in parrots.

Adaptive Behavior and Learning: How Cognitive Processing and Social Interaction Might Affect Allospecific Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

In captivity, parrots reproduce everything from the sound of water gurgling down a drain to the human voice, yet the authors actually know little about their patterns of vocal mimicry and whether cognitive processes might be involved in mimetic behavior.

Male vocal imitation produces call convergence during pair bonding in budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus

It is concluded that contact call imitation in adult budgerigars probably contributes to pair bond formation and maintenance and serves as a foundation for future studies on vocal learning in adult animals.

Call Usage Learning by a Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) in a Categorical Matching Task

Author(s): Vergara, Valeria; Barrett-Lennard, Lance | Abstract: The ability to modify the structure and context of vocalizations through learning plays a key role in the social interactions of many