A Review of Organophosphate Esters in the Environment from Biological Effects to Distribution and Fate

@article{Greaves2016ARO,
  title={A Review of Organophosphate Esters in the Environment from Biological Effects to Distribution and Fate},
  author={Alana K Greaves and Robert J. Letcher},
  journal={Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year={2016},
  volume={98},
  pages={2-7}
}
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are synthetic phosphoric acid derivatives used in a wide variety of applications including as flame retardants and plasticizers. Their production and usage has increased in recent years, due to the phase-out of other flame retardant formulations (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers). As such, there has been a recent push to understand the global distribution of OPEs and their behaviour in biota. Multiple studies have been published over the last few years… 
A review of organophosphate esters in soil: Implications for the potential source, transfer, and transformation mechanism.
TLDR
The source, transfer, and transformation mechanisms of OPEs are systematically reviewed from the perspective of the soil environment and the knowledge gaps are identified and the future perspectives of the O PEs in soil are generated.
A review of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in the environment: Analysis, occurrence and risk assessment.
TLDR
Risk assessments showed that the aquatic and benthic environments in some regions are under considerable ecological risks of OPEs, and a variety of methods on their pretreatment and determination have been developed.
Human internal exposure to organophosphate esters: A short review of urinary monitoring on the basis of biological metabolism research.
TLDR
The biological metabolic processes of nine OPEs prevalent in the environment, involving tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphorous (TDCIPP), tripropyl phosphate (TPrP), tri-n-butyl phosphate(TnBP), tricresyl phosphates (TCrP), are comprehensively reviewed.
Toxicity, monitoring and biodegradation of organophosphate pesticides: A review
Abstract Organophosphates are one of the major constituent of herbicides, pesticides, insecticides and nerve gas. Azinophos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos and disulfoton are well-known
Tissue-specific Bioaccumulation and Potential Factors of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants in Crucian Carp
Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are high production volume chemicals and widely used in industries and consumer products as most suitable alternatives of brominated flame retardants (BFRs).
A critical review of human exposure to organophosphate esters with a focus on dietary intake.
TLDR
There is an urgent need for assessments of human exposure to OPEs that examine all relevant pathways in a spatially and temporally-consistent fashion.
A review on organophosphate Ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in foodstuffs: Levels, distribution, human dietary exposure, and future directions.
TLDR
A preliminary assessment of human exposure to OPEs through dietary intake suggested that the OPE estimated daily intake for humans was around 880 ng/kg bw/day (95th percentile), which was well below the corresponding OPE health reference dose given by the U.S. EPA.
MULTIGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF THE FLAME RETARDANT TRIS ( 2-BUTOXYETHYL ) PHOSPHATE ( TBOEP ) IN DAPHNIA
Introduction Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is a non-halogenated alternative organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) used as a substitute for phased-out brominated flamed retardants (BFRs).
Organophosphorus Compounds at 80: Some Old and New Issues.
  • L. Costa
  • Medicine
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2018
TLDR
Some of these issues have been debated and studied for some time, while others are newer, suggesting that the study of the toxicology of OPs will remain an important scientific and public health issue for years to come.
Current-use halogenated and organophosphorous flame retardants: A review of their presence in Arctic ecosystems
Abstract Since the ban of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), other flame retardants may be increasingly used. Thirty-one current-use halogenated (HFRs) and 24
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TLDR
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