A Review of American Psychiatry Through Its Diagnoses: The History and Development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  title={A Review of American Psychiatry Through Its Diagnoses: The History and Development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders},
  author={Bernard A. Fischer},
  journal={The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
  • B. Fischer
  • Published 1 December 2012
  • Psychology
  • The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Abstract The history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) reflects the larger history of American psychiatry. As the field anticipates DSM-5, it is useful to take stock of this history and consider not only how diagnosis impacts our understanding of mental illness but also how contemporary thought influences diagnosis. Before the DSM, the field was disjointed. The publication of the first American diagnostic manual, the precursor of the DSM, mirrored society’s… 
The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders
The history of classification systems for mental illness and the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders are traced and a focus on events leading to the manual’s third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how the authors think about, and use, the classification system.
[DSM-5 and old age psychiatry].
An overview of the changes in the DSM-5 in the field of old age psychiatry is provided and the key points for clinical practice and elderly psychiatric care are identified.
DSM-5: Changes and Controversies
A Brief History of DSMThe American Psychiatric Association's (APA) 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; 2013a) represents the latest iteration of a
The DSM’s Reconnection to Psychoanalytic Theory through the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders
  • A. Natoli
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
  • 2019
Three current systems for diagnosing personality pathology—the DSM-5’s categorical model (2013), the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD), and the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (2nd ed.; Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations 2017) are compared are compared.
The DSM-5 and the mental health clinician as consultant
In DSM-5, the categories have been reorganized and the diagnostic criteria revisited, and the authors integrated diagnoses Usually made in childhood or adolescence alongside similar diagnoses usually made in adulthood.
A historical account of schizophrenia proneness categories from DSM-I to DSM-5 (1952-2013)
This work has taken as primary sources the five editions of the DSM to examine the construction of diagnostic categories related to schizophrenia proneness, indicating the scientific and social contexts related to the development of DSM and psychiatry itself.
The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations
How the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community is portrayed.
A Black and White History of Psychiatry in the United States.
Juxtaposing the development of psychiatric care and understanding as it was provided for, and applied to, black and white populations, a picture of the theoretic foundations of mental health emerges, revealing the separate history that led to the current uneven state of psychiatric Care.
The DSM-5 Clinical and Public Health Committee (CPHC): operations, mechanics, controversies and recommendations
The CPHC membership unanimously believes that external review processes to evaluate and respond to Work Group proposals is essential for future DSM efforts and recommends that separate SRC and C PHC committees be appointed to assess proposals for scientific merit and for clinical and public health utility and impact.
Process and Content of DSM-5
The third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was a highly successful revision in large part because it was tremendously


DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history.
  • M. Wilson
  • Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1993
While DSM-III, and the return to descriptive psychiatry which it inaugurated, has had positive consequences for the profession, at the same time it represents a significant narrowing of psychiatry's clinical gaze.
On the Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition (DSM–IV)
  • J. Cooper
  • Psychology
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1995
The postman who delivered the copy of DSM—IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) provided for this review also brought a recent issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry containing a paper
Neurosis, psychodynamics, and DSM-III. A history of the controversy.
A narrative account of the controversies over the role of psychodynamic formulations in DSM-III and the more focused, though sharply contested, symbolic dispute over the inclusion of neurosis in the nomenclature is presented.
Origins of DSM-I: a study in appearance and reality.
  • G. Grob
  • Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1991
The author's basic argument is that nosology reflected not only psychiatric ideology but also other, external determinants at any given point in time.
Toward an empirical classification for the DSM-IV.
The empirical basis for the DSM-IV is discussed, the input of empirical data through literature reviews, data reanalyses, and field trials is described, and an illustration with the antisocial personality disorder diagnosis is given.
International use and attitudes toward DSM-III and DSM-III-R: growing consensus in psychiatric classification.
The results revealed wide-spread endorsement of the multiaxial system, theoretical neutrality, descriptive symptom criteria forming discrete categories, and the placement of personality disorders on a separate axis in the DSM.
The development of DSM-IV.
It is likely that a much more important cause of the inexact communication about patients' disorders is the tendency of most clinicians to continue to use the classification system they learned during their initial specialty training.
The revised diagnostic and statistical manual of the American Psychiatric Association.
  • B. Jackson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1970
The author attempts to formulate an alternate system and to define commonly used terms with a greater degree of precision in the definition of terms of DSM-II.
Values and Assumptions in the Development of DSM-III and DSM-III-R: An Insider's Perspective and a Belated Response to Sadler, Hulgus, and Agich's "On Values in Recent American Psychiatric Classification"
  • R. Spitzer
  • Psychology
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 2001
The author will attempt to demonstrate that the stated goals of DSM- III and DSM-III-R are not inherently in conflict and are easily explicated by appealing to widely held values and assumptions, most of which appeared in the literature during the development of the manuals.
Clinical criteria for psychiatric diagnosis and DSM-III.
It is suggested that including specified criteria in the next edition of APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) would improve the reliability and validity of routine psychiatric diagnosis.