A Review of "Surgical Training in the United States: Is it Time for a Paradigm Shift?" by Chapman WC in J Am Coll Surg 226:1-7, 2016.


and supporting chondrocyte survival. Intramembranous ossification relies on coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both of which are VEGF-dependent. Additionally, VEGF influences both osteoclast bone resorption and osteoblast bone formation and is necessary to maintain normal bone remodeling. Varying levels of VEGF alter outcomes. Higher extracellular… (More)
DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003141


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