A Reverse Genetics System for the Great Lakes Strain of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus: the NV Gene is Required for Pathogenicity

@article{Ammayappan2010ARG,
  title={A Reverse Genetics System for the Great Lakes Strain of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus: the NV Gene is Required for Pathogenicity},
  author={Arun Ammayappan and Gael Kurath and Tarin M. Thompson and Vikram N. Vakharia},
  journal={Marine Biotechnology},
  year={2010},
  volume={13},
  pages={672-683}
}
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the… 
Generation and characterization of NV gene-knockout recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa.
TLDR
RVHSV-deltaNV-EGFP containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene instead of the NV gene suggests that the NV protein of VHSV may play an important role not only in viral replication but also in viral pathogenesis.
Generation and characterization of NV gene-knockout recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus ( VHSV ) genotype
TLDR
The results suggest that the NV protein of VHSV may play an important role not only in viral replication but also in viral pathogenesis, and the lower replication ability of rVHSV-wild compared to wild-type VHSVs might be caused by replaced nucleotides just before the NV gene open reading frame (ORF).
The glycoprotein, non-virion protein, and polymerase of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus are not determinants of host-specific virulence in rainbow trout
TLDR
Results demonstrate that the G, NV and L genes of VHSV are not, by themselves or in combination, major determinants of host-specific virulence in trout.
A single amino acid change in the non-structural NV protein impacts the virulence phenotype of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in trout.
TLDR
It is shown that rVHSVNVR116S was highly attenuated and that surviving fish were almost completely protected from a challenge with the wild-type VHSV.
Nonvirion Protein of Novirhabdovirus Suppresses Apoptosis at the Early Stage of Virus Infection
TLDR
Comparisons of the replication kinetics and markers for virus-induced apoptosis indicated that the NV-deficient and NV knockout mutant viruses induce apoptosis earlier in cell culture than the wild-type recombinant VHSV, suggesting that theNV protein has an antiapoptotic function at the early stage of virus infection.
The Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Markers of Virulence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
TLDR
Three major virulence markers were identified in the NV and N proteins, which explain almost all phenotypes observed in trout for the 55 VHSV strains analyzed in the present study and herein used for the backward validation of virulent markers.
Gene Diversification of an Emerging Pathogen: A Decade of Mutation in a Novel Fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) Substrain since Its First Appearance in the Laurentian Great Lakes
TLDR
This study analyzes temporal and spatial mutational patterns of VHSv-IVb across the Great Lakes for the novel non-virion (Nv) gene that is unique to this group of novirhabdoviruses, in relation to its glycoprotein (G), phosphoprotein (P), and matrix (M) genes.
Genomic and immunogenic changes of Piscine novirhabdovirus (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) over its evolutionary history in the Laurentian Great Lakes
TLDR
The overall findings indicate that VHSV-IVb has undergone continued sequence change and a trend to lower virulence over its evolutionary history (2003 through present-day), which may facilitate its long-term persistence in fish host populations.
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