A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa’afafine

  title={A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa’afafine},
  author={Nancy H. Bartlett and Paul L. Vasey},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
Retrospective studies, mostly conducted in Western cultures, indicate that childhood cross-gender behaviors are strongly predictive of androphilia in adult men. To test the cross-cultural validity of these findings, we conducted a study of fa’afafine in Independent Samoa. Fa’afafine are a heterogeneous group of androphilic males, some of whom are unremarkably masculine, but most of whom behave in a feminine manner in adulthood. A total of 53 fa’afafine, 27 control men, and 24 control women… 

Traits of Separation Anxiety in Childhood: A Retrospective Study of Samoan Men, Women, and Fa’afafine

Retrospective reports of childhood separation anxiety for Samoan men, women, and fa’afafine are compared to research on U.S. and Canadian boys with GIDC to suggest that separation anxiety in childhood may represent a universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most gender-atypical, androphilic males, regardless of their cultural milieu.

Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine

No relationship was found between the number of older brothers a participant had and their recalled CGN, and these findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males.

A Retrospective Study of Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior in Istmo Zapotec Men, Women, and Muxes

These findings provide further evidence that childhood sex-atypical behavior is a cross-culturally universal and normative developmental aspect of male androphilia, regardless of whether it manifests in the cisgender or transgender form.

The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa’afafine

Support is furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.

The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa’afafine

Support is furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia in Samoa.

Relationship status and elevated avuncularity in Samoan fa’afafine

“Androphilia” and “gynephilia” refer to sexual attraction to adult males and females, respectively. Samoan androphilic males are known as fa’afafine. Previously, fa’afafine reported greater avuncular

What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?

It is concluded that the diagnostic category of GIDC should not occur in its current form in future editions of the DSM, as there is no compelling evidence that cross-gender behaviors or identities, in and of themselves, cause distress in the individual.

Familial Patterning and Prevalence of Male Androphilia in Samoa

The present study replicated the familial nature of male androphilia in Samoa using a sample size that was ~122% larger than the one employed and found significantly more fa’afafine relatives in their maternal and paternal lines compared to Samoan gynephilic males.

Materteral and Avuncular Tendencies in Samoa

Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult females. In Independent Samoa, androphilic males, most of whom

Birth order and male androphilia in Samoan fa'afafine

Results indicate that relative to gynephilic males, fa'afafine tend to have more siblings and are generally later born when birth order is quantified using Slater, fraternal and sororal indices.



A cross-cultural assessment of early cross-gender behavior and familial factors in male homosexuality

It is concluded that early cross-gender behavior is an intrinsic characteristic of male homosexuals, wherever they may be found, and familial factors frequently regarded as conducive to homosexuality are probably not causative at all but rather are culturally variable reactions to emerging homosexuality.

Cultural Universals and Differences in Male Homosexuality: The Case of a Brazilian Fishing Village

  • F. Cardoso
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2005
There were significant differences in childhood play activities, sexual inclinations, and sports preferences between paneleiros and non-paneleiro; however, paneleiro lovers and persistentheterosexuals were not significantly different with regard to these variables or with regards to access to women.

The prehomosexual male child in three societies: The United States, Guatemala, Brazil

The question raised by this article is: do the several behavioral indicators of male homosexuality, which emerge in childhood, appear cross-culturally, or are they limited to American society? These

Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review.

This article reviewed research examining the association between childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation. Prospective studies suggest that childhood cross-sex-typed behavior is strongly

Paradise Lost? Social Change and Fa'afafine in Samoa

Geographically isolated in the centre of the Pacific, Samoa has only recently become fully incorporated into economic and social forms of globalization. The past few decades have seen significant

Same-sex Sexuality and Childhood Gender Non-conformity: A spurious connection

Biological and hormonal theories of same-sex sexuality are usually based upon an assumption of congenital gender inversion, that is, that a lesbian is in some way masculinised and a gay man in some

The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties

This article reports on the psychometric properties of The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire, a 23-item questionnaire designed to measure recalled gender-typed behavior and

A Parent-Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children

It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.

The Course of Gay and Lesbian Lives: Social and Psychoanalytic Perspectives

We live in a society obsessed with tracing the cause of homosexuality. Is there a gene that can be identified? Or do the origins lie outside of biology in the cultural context of childhood or

Sociological Research on Male and Female Homosexuality

We review four topics which have dominated the research on homosexuality in the last decade. First, we address the question of etiology which is now best described as the essentialist/constructionist