A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa’afafine

@article{Bartlett2006ARS,
  title={A Retrospective Study of Childhood Gender-Atypical Behavior in Samoan Fa’afafine},
  author={Nancy H. Bartlett and Paul L. Vasey},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
  year={2006},
  volume={35},
  pages={659-666}
}
Retrospective studies, mostly conducted in Western cultures, indicate that childhood cross-gender behaviors are strongly predictive of androphilia in adult men. To test the cross-cultural validity of these findings, we conducted a study of fa’afafine in Independent Samoa. Fa’afafine are a heterogeneous group of androphilic males, some of whom are unremarkably masculine, but most of whom behave in a feminine manner in adulthood. A total of 53 fa’afafine, 27 control men, and 24 control women… Expand
Traits of Separation Anxiety in Childhood: A Retrospective Study of Samoan Men, Women, and Fa’afafine
TLDR
Retrospective reports of childhood separation anxiety for Samoan men, women, and fa’afafine are compared to research on U.S. and Canadian boys with GIDC to suggest that separation anxiety in childhood may represent a universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most gender-atypical, androphilic males, regardless of their cultural milieu. Expand
Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine
TLDR
No relationship was found between the number of older brothers a participant had and their recalled CGN, and these findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males. Expand
A Retrospective Study of Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior in Istmo Zapotec Men, Women, and Muxes.
TLDR
These findings provide further evidence that childhood sex-atypical behavior is a cross-culturally universal and normative developmental aspect of male androphilia, regardless of whether it manifests in the cisgender or transgender form. Expand
The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa’afafine
TLDR
Support is furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia in Samoa. Expand
Relationship status and elevated avuncularity in Samoan fa’afafine
“Androphilia” and “gynephilia” refer to sexual attraction to adult males and females, respectively. Samoan androphilic males are known as fa’afafine. Previously, fa’afafine reported greater avuncularExpand
What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?
TLDR
It is concluded that the diagnostic category of GIDC should not occur in its current form in future editions of the DSM, as there is no compelling evidence that cross-gender behaviors or identities, in and of themselves, cause distress in the individual. Expand
Is Transgendered Male Androphilia Familial in Non-Western Populations? The Case of a Samoan Village
TLDR
The present study indicated that transgendered male androphilia is familial in this particular Samoan village, thus adding to a growing literature demonstrating that male andphilia and gender atypicality have consistent developmental correlates across populations. Expand
Familial Patterning and Prevalence of Male Androphilia in Samoa
TLDR
The present study replicated the familial nature of male androphilia in Samoa using a sample size that was ~122% larger than the one employed and found significantly more fa’afafine relatives in their maternal and paternal lines compared to Samoan gynephilic males. Expand
Materteral and Avuncular Tendencies in Samoa
Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal to adult females. In Independent Samoa, androphilic males, most of whomExpand
Birth order and male androphilia in Samoan fa'afafine
TLDR
Results indicate that relative to gynephilic males, fa'afafine tend to have more siblings and are generally later born when birth order is quantified using Slater, fraternal and sororal indices. Expand
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