A Reinforcement Learning Scheme for a Partially-Observable Multi-Agent Game

@article{Ishii2005ARL,
  title={A Reinforcement Learning Scheme for a Partially-Observable Multi-Agent Game},
  author={Shinya Ishii and Hajime Fujita and Masaoki Mitsutake and Tatsuya Yamazaki and Jun Matsuda and Yoichiro Matsuno},
  journal={Machine Learning},
  year={2005},
  volume={59},
  pages={31-54}
}
We formulate an automatic strategy acquisition problem for the multi-agent card game “Hearts” as a reinforcement learning problem. The problem can approximately be dealt with in the framework of a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) for a single-agent system. Hearts is an example of imperfect information games, which are more difficult to deal with than perfect information games. A POMDP is a decision problem that includes a process for estimating unobservable state variables… 
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