A Rapid Test for Pregnancy on Xenopus lævis

@article{Shapiro1934ART,
  title={A Rapid Test for Pregnancy on Xenopus l{\ae}vis},
  author={Howard A. Shapiro and Harry Zwarenstein},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1934},
  volume={133},
  pages={762-762}
}
IN a recent communication Bellerby (1933)1 has shown that injection of acid or alkaline extracts of bovine anterior lobe of the pituitary gland into female South African clawed toads (Xenopus Iœvis) produces extrusion of ova through the cloaca within 18 hours. 

Method for estimating the Number of Eggs laid by Xenopus laevis in Response to the Injection of Gonadotrophin

A method to estimate the number of eggs laid in Xenopus laevis by injecting human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is described here.

The Hogben Pregnancy Test with a Note on the Breeding of Xenopus for the Test

The South African clawed toad Xen@tls Laevis was first introduced as an assay animal by Hogben’ in 1930 and is now well established that they can be used as a reliable test animal for pregnancy diagnosis in humans’, and assay of melanophore-expanding hormone.

The diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by gonadotropic hormone assay using the South African frog, Xenopus laevis.

The clinical application of the South African Frog (Xenopus laevis) to the finding of gonadotropic hormones in the urdne of pregnancy and the early foundation for the frog test for pregnancy was laid.

Platyhelminths from the South African Clawed Toad, or Platanna (Xenopus laevis)

Since the discovery by Shapiro and Zwarenstein (1934) that females of Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802) respond to hormones present in the urine of pregnant women, this species of amphibian has proved to

ROUTINE PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN USING FEMALE XENOPUS LAEVIS

  • B. Hobson
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of the British Empire
  • 1952
The experience gained from maintaining a stock of 6,000 toads and performing more than 100,000 pregnancy tests in the past 5$ years should be available to workers who wish to make use of this animal.

The introduction of Xenopus laevis into developmental biology: of empire, pregnancy testing and ribosomal genes.

The scientific domestication of the South African clawed frog is traced, focusing on how, between the 1930s and the early 1960s, it was introduced into European and North American laboratories, where demand was ensured by a reorientation ofembryology towards biochemical methods.

A critical evaluation of biological pregnancy tests.

  • R. L. Berman
  • Biology
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • 1956

PREGNANCY TEST USING THE MALE TOAD

Evidence is found that in the toad the pituitary exerts a constant influence upon the spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and that removal of the pituitsary produces testicular atrophy.
...

References

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METABOLIC CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE IN XENOPUS LAEVIS : III. CHANGES IN THE CALCIUM CONTENT OF THE SERUM ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTIVITY AND THE NORMAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

The correlation between ovarian retrogression and decreased serum calcium of animals kept in captivity and the seasonal changes in serum calcium and ovarian activity of animals in their natural environment were more fully investigated.