Optical mapping is a method of whole genome analysis that was originally introduced in 1995 1. It involves the generation of ordered restriction maps for entire genomes using classical molecular biology and biological microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) microfluidic techniques adopted from the semiconductor industry. The goal of this paper is to review the pertinent literature on optical mapping. The literature review will be broken into three sections: an overview of the optical mapping process, an in-depth investigation of the algorithms involved in the data analysis, and finally a look at relevance and applications of this technology. We aim to offer the reader a comprehensive review of this technology and an explanation of its future potential.