Neoadjuvant radiotherapy followed by mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction
Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is increasingly used in invasive breast cancer. However, adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) can increase the rate of local complications. The aim of this study was to assess the morbidity of SSM–IBR after neoadjuvant CT and RT. A French prospective pilot study of women aged 18–75 years with invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy after CT and RT. Reconstruction was performed using autologous latissimus dorsi flap with or without prosthesis. The primary endpoint was the skin necrosis rate within 6 months, while secondary endpoints included pathological complete response rate (pCR) and global morbidity. Among 94 patients included in this study, 83 were analyzed (mean age 45.2 ± 9.5 years, T1 23.6 %, T2 55.6 %, T3 18.1 %). All but one patient received anthracyclines and taxanes, and all patients received RT (49.3 ± 5.2 Gy) before SSM–IBR. Prostheses were used for IBR in 32 patients (mean volume 256 ± 73 mm3). Five patients had necrosis (≤2 cm2, 2–10 cm2 and >10 cm2, in three, one, and one cases, respectively), and they all recovered without revision surgery. Among 50 patients who underwent upfront mastectomy, 36 % achieved pCR. SSM–IBR performed after CT and RT is safe, with an acceptable local morbidity rate. Long-term data are needed to evaluate recurrence rates.