A Primary Study on Application of Artificial Neural Network in Classification of Pediatric Fracture Healing Time of the Lower Limb

  title={A Primary Study on Application of Artificial Neural Network in Classification of Pediatric Fracture Healing Time of the Lower Limb},
  author={Sorayya Malek and Roshan Gunalan and S. Y. Kedija and C. F. Lau and Mogeeb A. A. Mosleh and Pozi Milow and H. Amber and Aik Saw},
  booktitle={Practical Applications of Computational Biology \& Bioinformatics},
In this study we examined the lower limb fracture in children and classified the healing time using supervised and unsupervised artificial neural network (ANN). Radiographs of long bones from 2009 to 2011 of lower limb fractures involving the femur, tibia and fibula from children ages 0 to 13 years, with ages recorded from the date and time of initial injury was obtained from the pediatric orthopedic unit in University Malaya Medical Centre. ANNs was developed using the following input: type of… 


It is concluded that RF, Decision Tree, SVM, ANN and SOM techniques can be used to assist in analysis of the healing time efficiently and contact area percentage of fracture, type of fractures, number of fractured bone and age as important variables in explaining the fracture healing pattern.

Artificial intelligence for radiological paediatric fracture assessment: a systematic review

Wide heterogeneity in the literature with limited information on algorithm performance on external datasets makes it difficult to understand how such tools for paediatric fracture assessment on imaging may generalise to a wider paediatric population.

How Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Is Assisting Us to Extract Meaning from Data on Bone Mechanics?

This book chapter offers a review of literature on the use of AI, ML, and ANN in the study of bone mechanics research and introduces AI and ML and elaborates on the main features of ML algorithms such as learning paradigms, subtypes, main ideas with examples, performance metrics, training algorithms, and training datasets.



Using an artificial neural network to predict healing times and risk factors for venous leg ulcers.

The ability to identify at presentation ulcers that might be resistant to standard therapy would allow early consideration of more radical treatments such as hospitalisation, wound debridement or venous surgery.

Hip fracture risk assessment: artificial neural network outperforms conditional logistic regression in an age- and sex-matched case control study

The risk factors of hip fracture are more personal than environmental and with adequate model construction, ANN may outperform CLR in both discrimination and calibration.

Machine learning in prognosis of the femoral neck fracture recovery

The biology of fracture healing in long bones.

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This review is primarily concerned with those features which have direct clinical relevance and it is fortunately possible to treat fractures successfully without a complete understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved without at the same time relying entirely on empiricism.

ABC of child abuse. Fractures.

In one study of physically abused children more than half of the children were under 3 years old and they sustained most of the fractures, although fractures are uncommon in falls of under a metre.

Skeletal Injury in the Child

This book presents an overview of fractures and dislocations affecting the developing skeleton. Emphasizes decision making, particularly in choosing between closed versus open treatments. Includes


All the fractures in the different regions of the body are taken seriatim, and the symptoms and treatment appropriate to each are discussed; and, in addition to this, all the common forms of fracture, and many of the rarer forms, are skiagraphically illustrated.

Self organising maps for the investigation of clinical data: A case study

It is concluded that it is possible to create a map, a compressed data representation, using BMD values which may then be partitioned into low and high fracture risk areas, which may be a useful screening mechanism for detecting people at risk of osteoporotic fracture.

Practice of Pediatric Orthopedics

Growth Evaluation Management Lower Limb Foot Knee and Tibia Hip Spine and Pelvis Upper Limb Trauma Sports Infection Tumors Neuromuscular Disorders Syndromes Procedures Reference Information Index

Fundamentals of Pediatric Orthopedics

Fourth Edition of the Fourth Edition of this best-selling book is a complete and user-friendly guide to diagnosis and management of pediatric orthopedic problems.