A Preliminary Study of Pollen Dispersal in Cannabis sativa in Relation to Wind Direction

  title={A Preliminary Study of Pollen Dispersal in Cannabis sativa in Relation to Wind Direction},
  author={Ernest Small and Tanya Antle},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Hemp},
  pages={37 - 50}
Abstract Pollen of Cannabis sativa is disseminated by wind in large amounts and for long distances, and regulations concerning the production of pedigreed seed of industrial hemp, therefore, often call for extremely large isolation distances to prevent unwanted pollination. In Europe and Canada, a standard distance of 5 km is required for the highest classes of hemp seed. This study examines the relative distribution of pollen from an isolated field over the 3-week maximum flowering period… 

Comparing methods for controlled capture and quantification of pollen in Cannabis sativa

To maximize yield, pollen should be collected by hand or vacuum, but all collection methods were equally efficient in a relative sense because yield increased with collection time.

Cannabis is indigenous to Europe and cultivation began during the Copper or Bronze age: a probabilistic synthesis of fossil pollen studies

Examining fossil pollen studies showed C/H pollen consistent with wild-type C. sativa in steppe and dry tundra landscapes throughout Europe during the early Holocene, Late Glacial, and previous glaciations.

Industry-Based Misconceptions Regarding Cross-Pollination of Cannabis spp.

Cross-pollination of commercial crops has been an ongoing issue in many species. Cannabis spp. encompasses the classifications of marijuana [high in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] and hemp (below

Classification of Cannabis sativa L. in Relation to Agricultural, Biotechnological, Medical and Recreational Utilization

Cannabis sativa has been utilized for millennia, primarily as a source of a stem fiber (both the plant and the fiber termed “hemp”) and a resinous intoxicant (the plant and its drug preparations

Tetrahydrocannabinol levels in hemp (cannabis sativa) germplasm resources

This study surveyed THC levels of 167 accessions grown in southern Ontario, making this the largest survey to date of germplasm intended for breeding in North America, and found forty-three percent of these had THC levels ≥0.3% and are unsuitable for hemp development in NorthAmerica.

History and lore of sesame in Southwest Asia

The crop’s domestication and subsequent dispersal are reviewed from the archaeological literature and early texts. The introduction of sesame represents an agricultural innovation in Southwest Asia,

A multivariate analysis of morphological divergence of “seeds” (achenes) among ruderal, fibre, oilseed, dioecious/monoecious and marijuana variants of Cannabis sativa L.

Domesticated plants (both hemp and marijuana) possessed achenes that were significantly longer, heavier, covered with a less adherent perianth, and lacking a pronounced basal attenuation, which reflect traits that are advantageous in domesticated plants and are consistent with the “domestication syndrome” found in propagules of other crops.

Hermaphroditism in Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) Inflorescences – Impact on Floral Morphology, Seed Formation, Progeny Sex Ratios, and Genetic Variation

The morphological features of anthers, pollen production and germination in hermaphroditic flowers and in staminate inflorescences on male plants were compared and Copia-like retrotransposons within the C. sativa genome which may be associated with the expression of male or female phenotype were revealed.



Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male‐sterile bait plants

In this study, cytoplasmic male‐sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow and the CMS–bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

How far can wind-borne pollen be disseminated?


This is the final report of MAFF/Defra project OF0157. Genetically modified (GM) crops cannot be released into the environment and used as food, feed, medicines or industrial processing before

Textbook of Pollen Analysis

This sales letter may not influence you to be smarter, but the book that this textbook of pollen analysis will evoke you to being smarter.

Cannabis (hemp) positive skin tests and respiratory symptoms.

  • J. StokesR. HartelL. FordT. Casale
  • Medicine
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
  • 2000

History of botanical science

This enormous survey is not exhaustive, and should not be regarded as such, but I am sure that motivated users of the catalogue will be able to cope with these problems and be helped considerably in the location of archival material.

[Occupational immediate type allergy to hemp pollen and hashish (author's transl)].

A 26-year aged non-atopic criminological technician reacted to hemp (Cannabis sativa) and hashish with urticarial eruptions on hands and lower arms, rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Rubbing tests with

Humidity stress responses in pollen of anemophilous and entomophilous species

Pollen viability in the anemophilous species decreased more rapidly than in the entomophilious ones with the exception of the dioecious palm Chamaerops humilis.

Pollen dispersal and effect of pollen density on seed production in Larix leptolepis seed orchard

  • Research Report of the Institute of Forest Genetics
  • 1984