A Porosity-Length Formalism for Photon-Tiring-limited Mass Loss from Stars above the Eddington Limit

@article{Owocki2004APF,
  title={A Porosity-Length Formalism for Photon-Tiring-limited Mass Loss from Stars above the Eddington Limit},
  author={Stanley P. Owocki and Kenneth Gayley and Nir J. Shaviv},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2004},
  volume={616},
  pages={525 - 541}
}
We examine radiatively driven mass loss from stars near and above the Eddington limit. Building on the standard CAK theory of driving by scattering in an ensemble of lines with a power-law distribution of opacity, we first show that the formal divergence of such line-driven mass loss as a star approaches the Eddington limit is actually limited by the "photon tiring" associated with the work needed to lift material out of the star's gravitational potential. We also examine such tiring in simple… 

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