A Physiologically-based Model for Simulation of Color Vision Deficiency

  title={A Physiologically-based Model for Simulation of Color Vision Deficiency},
  author={Gustavo Mello Machado and Manuel Menezes de Oliveira Neto and Leandro A. F. Fernandes},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
Color vision deficiency (CVD) affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, compromising the ability of these individuals to effectively perform color and visualization-related tasks. This has a significant impact on their private and professional lives. We present a physiologically-based model for simulating color vision. Our model is based on the stage theory of human color vision and is derived from data reported in electrophysiological studies. It is the first model to consistently… 

Physiological modeling for detecting degree of perception of a color-deficient person

  • T. RajalakshmiS. Prince
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine
  • 2017
A human visual system model is developed for detecting the level of perception of people with red, green and blue deficiency by considering properties like luminance, spatial and temporal frequencies and explains with appropriate results that red and blue color blindness people could not perceive red andblue color completely.

Personalized Simulations of Colour Vision Deficiency

A new simulation approach that is based on a specific empirical model of the actual colour perception abilities of a person with CVD is developed, and it is found that the personalized simulations were significantly more accurate than the old method.

Color vision deficiency compensation for Visual Processing Disorder using Hardy-Rand-Rittler test and color transformation

The design of KULAY is focused on, a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) device that can assess whether a user has a CVD or not thru the standard Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) test, and the output of the simulated HRR assessment and color transformation shows very promising results indicating effectiveness and efficiency of the study.

Visualizing Visual Adaptation.

This protocol describes a technique for incorporating sensory adaptation into the simulations of human color vision that helps reveal the theoretical limits of adaptation and generate "adapted images" that are optimally matched to a specific environment or observer.

Color-blindness simulation for red-green and blue-yellow ambiguity

The proposed blue-yellow blind simulation is compared with the result of another research project and shows that the color perception of individuals with different degrees of blue- yellow blindness can be reconstructed with a reasonable accuracy.

Accessibility for individuals with color vision deficiency

Situation-Specific Models (SSMs) are color differentiation models created in-situ via a calibration procedure that captures the exact color differentiation abilities of the user, allowing a color differentiation model to be created that fits the user and his/her environmental situation.

Situation-Specific Models of Color Differentiation

The SSM approach, called Situation-Specific Modeling (SSM), constructs a model of a specific user’s color differentiation abilities in a specific situation, and uses that model as the basis for recoloring digital presentations, and demonstrates situation-specific modeling as a new approach that can broaden the applicability of assistive technology.

Accessibility for individuals with color vision deficiency

Situation-Specific Models (SSMs) are color differentiation models created in-situ via a calibration procedure that captures the exact color differentiation abilities of the user, allowing a color differentiation model to be created that fits the user and his/her environmental situation.


  • Art
  • 2018
The commonly known vision defect in human eyeball is Color vision deficiency (CVD). It is color blind type deficiency caused due to the excretion in our eyeball; this is either in the form of defect

Image Content Enhancement Through Salient Regions Segmentation for People With Color Vision Deficiencies

This article eye-tracked the human fixations in first 3 seconds of observation of color images to build real fixation point maps and provides a method to enhance color regions of the image by using a detailed color mapping of the segmented salient areas of the given image.



Quantification and Standardized Description of Color Vision Deficiency Caused by Anomalous Trichromats—Part I: Simulation and Measurement

A novel computerized hue test (CHT) is presented to examine and quantify CVD, which allows reproducing and manipulating test colors for the purposes of computer simulation and analysis of CVD.

Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats.

We propose an algorithm that transforms a digitized color image so as to simulate for normal observers the appearance of the image for people who have dichromatic forms of color blindness. The

Color-defective vision and computer graphics displays

A color space defined by the fundamental spectral sensitivity functions of the human visual system is used and specific guidelines are offered for the design of computer graphics displays that will accommodate almost all color-deficient users.

Cone pigments in human deutan colour vision defects.

Individual differnce in kinetics (photosensitivity, time constant of regeneration, and in the density and lambdamax of the difference spectrum of erythrolabe in deuteranopia are appreciable; the reasons for these differences are not clear.

Foveal cone mosaic and visual pigment density in dichromats.

The analysis of the spectral fundus reflectance also provided estimates for densities of photo‐labile and photo‐stable retinal pigments and fraction of long wavelength‐sensitive (LWS) cones.


explain in particular the psychological laws of color vision. I expect that in the future anatomists and physiologists will add greatly to our knowledge in these very interesting problems, but as a

Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects.

Using color, the authors know from a distance which car is theirs in the parking lot--it is the blue one--and whether they will need to stop at the distant traffic light, even at night, when they cannot see the relative positions of red and green lights.

Color perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers.

  • D. B. Judd
  • Art
    Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards
  • 1948
A review of the rather considerable literature shows that the color perceptions of both protanopic and deuteranopic observers are confined to two hues, yellow and blue, closely like those perceived under usual conditions in the spectrum at 575 mμ and 470 mμ, respectively, by normal observers.

Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness

This chapter introduces the molecular structure of the genes encoding the human cone photopigments and their expression in photoreceptor cells and considers the consequences that alterations in those genes have on the spectral sensitivity and perceptual worlds of the color normal and color blind individuals who possess them.