A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model of Amiodarone and its Metabolite Desethylamiodarone in Rats: Pooled Analysis of Published Data

Abstract

Amiodarone (AMD) is one of the most effective drugs for rhythm control of atrial fibrillation. The use of AMD is also associated with adverse effects in multiple tissues. Both the parent compound and its major metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) contribute to the drug’s therapeutic and toxic action. The present study aimed to build a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for AMD and DEA in rats. Pharmacokinetic data from multiple studies were collected. Some of the data were pooled together to develop the PBPK model; others were used to evaluate the model. Development of the model also involved in vitro to in vivo extrapolation based on in vitro metabolism data. The final model consisted of 11 tissue compartments, including therapeutic target organs and those to which AMD and DEA may be harmful. Model simulations were in good agreement with the observed time courses of the drug–metabolite pair in tissues, under various dosing scenarios. The key pharmacokinetic properties of AMD, such as extensive tissue distribution, substantial storage in the fat tissue, and long half-lives in many tissues, were closely reflected. The developed PBPK model can be regarded as the first step towards a PBPK–pharmacodynamic model that can used to mechanistically evaluate and explain the high adverse event rate and potentially to determine which factors are the primary drives for experiencing an adverse event.

DOI: 10.1007/s13318-015-0295-0

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Cite this paper

@article{Lu2015APB, title={A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model of Amiodarone and its Metabolite Desethylamiodarone in Rats: Pooled Analysis of Published Data}, author={Jing-tao Lu and Ying Shun Cai and Feng Chen and Wei-wei Jia and Zhe-yi Hu and Yuan-Sheng Zhao}, journal={European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics}, year={2015}, volume={41}, pages={689-703} }