A Perspective on the History of the Iberian Gypsies Provided by Phylogeographic Analysis of Y‐Chromosome Lineages

  title={A Perspective on the History of the Iberian Gypsies Provided by Phylogeographic Analysis of Y‐Chromosome Lineages},
  author={Alfredo Gusm{\~a}o and Leonor Gusm{\~a}o and Ver{\'o}nica Gomes and Cíntia Alves and Francesc Calafell and Ant{\'o}nio Amorim and Maria Jo{\~a}o Prata},
  journal={Annals of Human Genetics},
The European Gypsies, commonly referred to as Roma, are represented by a vast number of groups spread across many countries. Although sharing a common origin, the Gypsy groups are highly heterogeneous as a consequence of genetic drift and different levels of admixture with surrounding populations. With this study we aimed at contributing to the knowledge of the Roma history by studying 17 Y‐STR and 34 Y‐SNP loci in a sample of 126 Portuguese Gypsies. Distinct genetic hallmarks of their past and… 

The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations

The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions.

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The exact haplotype matching analysis of both uniparental lineages consistently points to a Northwestern origin of the proto-Roma population within the Indian subcontinent.

Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma people.

An analysis of Y-chromosomal markers from five Roma and two non-Roma populations is provided to investigate the genetic relatedness of the Roma population groups to one another, and to gain further understanding of their likely Indian origins, the genetic contribution of non-roma males to the Roma populations, and the early history of their splits and migrations in Europe.

Recent common origin, reduced population size, and marked admixture have shaped European Roma genomes.

It is found that despite the strong admixture Roma had in their diaspora, the signature of the initial bottleneck and the subsequent endogamy is still present in Roma genomes.

Founder lineages in the Iberian Roma mitogenomes recapitulate the Roma diaspora and show the effects of demographic bottlenecks

The results show the magnitude of founder effects in the Iberian Roma and further explain the Roma history and genetic diversity from a matrilineal point of view.

Divergent patrilineal signals in three Roma populations.

Y-chromosome distributions in three Roma collections residing in Belgrade, Vojvodina and Kosovo are reported for the first time and illustrate that the most notable difference among the three Roma populations is in their opposing distributions of haplogroups H and E.

A genetic historical sketch of European Gypsies: The perspective from autosomal markers.

Analysis of genetic distances revealed that the average level of genetic differentiation between Gypsy groups was much larger than that observed between the corresponding non-Gypsy populations, and the high rate of heterogeneity among Gypsies can be explained by strong genetic drift and limited intergroup gene flow.

Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians

AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes.

Paternal portrait of populations of the middle Magdalena River region (Tolima and Huila, Colombia): New insights on the peopling of Central America and northernmost South America

An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of samples suggests the Tolima and Huila region to be the principal area in all Central and South America where this particular Native lineage is found.



Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in europe.

Haplogroup I, the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but virtually absent elsewhere, is analyzed, in detail, and it is revealed that it underwent a postglacial expansion and marked the human colonization of Sardinia approximately 9,000 years ago.

Micro‐Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages

Haplogroup frequency distributions, Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and genetic distance analyses at both Y‐SNP and Y‐STR levels revealed a general genetic homogeneity of Portuguese sub‐populations.

Origins and divergence of the Roma (gypsies).

Principal-components analysis and analysis of molecular variance indicate that genetic structure in extant endogamous Romani populations has been shaped by genetic drift and differential admixture and correlates with the migrational history of the Roma in Europe.

High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations.

The extent and nature of southeastern Europe (SEE) paternal genetic contribution to the European genetic landscape were explored based on a high-resolution Y chromosome analysis involving 681 males from seven populations in the region, finding that five major haplogroups comprise more than 70% of SEE total genetic variation.

Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area.

The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J was investigated in >2400 subjects from 29 populations, mainly from Europe and the Mediterranean area but also from Africa and Asia, revealing spatial patterns that are consistent with a Levantine/Anatolian dispersal route to southeastern Europe.

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A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non‐recombining portion of the Y‐chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as subsequent colonizations, differentiations and migrations overlaid upon previous population ranges.

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Dating estimates confirmed the presence of a major population structuring at the time of spread of haplogroup J in Europe and a punctuation in the peopling of this continent in the post-Neolithic, compatible with the expansion of the Greek world.

Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia

This comprehensive characterization of Y-chromosome heritage addresses many multifaceted aspects of Anatolian prehistory, including: the most frequent haplogroup, J, splits into two sub-clades, one of which (J2) shows decreasing variances with increasing latitude, compatible with a northward expansion.

Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa.

The present study shows that earlier work based on fewer Y-chromosome markers led to rather simple historical interpretations and highlights the fact that many population-genetic analyses are not robust to a poorly resolved phylogeny and reveals signatures of several distinct processes of migrations and/or recurrent gene flow that occurred in Africa and western Eurasia over the past 25000 years.

Mutation history of the roma/gypsies.

The existence of multiple sub isolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease.