Theory and Measurement of Social Intelligence as a Cognitive Performance Construct Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
In this article, we report the development of a new test designed to measure individual differences in emotion recognition ability (ERA), five studies examining the reliability and validity of the scores produced using this test, and the first evidence for a correlation between ERA measured by a standardized test and personality. Utilizing Matsumoto and Ekman’s (1988) Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) and Neutral Faces (JACNeuF), we call this measure the Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). The JACBART improves on previous measures of ERA by (1) using expressions that have substantial validity and reliability data associated with them, (2) including posers of two visibly different races (3) balanced across seven universal emotions (4) with equal distribution of poser race and sex across emotions (5) in a format that eliminates afterimages associated with fast exposures. Scores derived using the JACBART are reliable, and three studies demonstrated a correlation between ERA and the personality constructs of Openness and Conscientiousness, while one study reports a correlation with Extraversion and Neuroticism. Research on judgments of emotion from facial expressions has a long and important history in psychology, and has contributed greatly to the literature concerning the universality of emotion, and to knowledge conDavid Matsumoto, Jeff LeRoux, Carinda Wilson-Cohn, Jake Raroque, and Kristie Kooken, San Francisco State University; Paul Ekman, University of California, San Francisco; Nathan Yrizarry, Sherry Loewinger, Hideko Uchida, Albert Yee, Lisa Amo, and Angeline Goh, San Francisco State University. We thank Chu Kim, Sunita Paul, and Rebecca Ray for their assistance in our general research program. Address correspondence to David Matsumoto, Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132; e-mail: dm sfsu.edu.