A New Elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Bearpaw Shale (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of Montana Demonstrates Multiple Evolutionary Reductions of Neck Length Within Elasmosauridae

@article{Serratos2017ANE,
  title={A New Elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Bearpaw Shale (Late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of Montana Demonstrates Multiple Evolutionary Reductions of Neck Length Within Elasmosauridae},
  author={Danielle J. Serratos and Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Roger B. J. Benson},
  journal={Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
  year={2017},
  volume={37}
}
ABSTRACT Plesiosauria is a diverse clade of marine reptiles that have been studied since the early 19th century. However, phylogenetic relationships within the group have been contentious due to limited taxon sampling and a misunderstanding of how ontogeny and interspecific and intraspecific variation affect character states. This is particularly true for elasmosaurids, a Cretaceous clade of long-necked plesiosaurians. In 2010, a new, nearly complete skeleton, MOR 3072, was collected from the… 

A new elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the non-marine to paralic Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta, Canada

This study reports on a recently collected and prepared specimen, which represents the most complete elasmosaurid yet collected from the DPF, and is sufficiently complete to be assigned as the holotype of a new genus and species.

A new elasmosaurid plesiosaurian from the Early Cretaceous of Russia marks an early attempt at neck elongation

A new elasmosaurid is described from the upper Hauterivian (Lower Cretaceous) of Ulyanovsk (European Russia) and its shape suggests multiple episodes of elongation and shortening, however, the precise patterns are obscured by an unstable phylogenetic signal.

A New Basal Elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous of Germany

ABSTRACT Here we report on a new basal elasmosaurid plesiosaurian, Lagenanectes richterae, gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cretaceous (probably Upper Hauterivian) of Germany. The material includes

Elasmosaurid Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography, with a Reappraisal of Aphrosaurus furlongi from the Maastrichtian of the Moreno Formation

The phylogenetic analysis recovered A. furlongi as an elasmosaurid within Weddellonectia and generated a new topology of Elasmosuridae, including all post-Cenomanian elasmOSaurids other than Zarafasaura oceanis.

A non-aristonectine plesiosaur from Antarctica reveals new data on the mandibular symphysis of elasmosaurids

Abstract Elasmosaurids are one of the most abundant fossil marine reptile groups identified from the Upper Cretaceous strata of Antarctica. However, the documented record of intact elasmosaurid skull

A new plesiosaur from the Lower Jurassic of Portugal and the early radiation of Plesiosauroidea

This plesiosaur partial skeleton, comprising most of the trunk and including axial, limb, and girdle bones, was collected in the lower Sinemurian of Praia da Concha and testifies to the incursion of marine reptiles in the newly formed proto-Atlantic sea, prior to the Atlantic Ocean floor spreading in the Early Cretaceous.

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Cladistic analysis using 43 discrete cranio-dental and vertebral characters coded for 16 ingroup and one outgroup taxon supports this conclusion, indicating that E. carinognathus is a crown-group elasmosaurid of more derived grade than Occitanosaurus (Lower Jurassic, Toarcian, France).

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This research recognizes the ‘Cimoliasauridae’ (nomen dubium) as a paraphyletic group but informative of a plesiomorphic cervical vertebral morphology of elasmosaurids which was persistent throughout the whole Cretaceous and from whom aristonectines, styxosaurines and Thalassomedon and close relatives are derived.
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