A New Archaeocete and Other Marine Mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from Lower Middle Eocene Phosphate Deposits of Togo

  title={A New Archaeocete and Other Marine Mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from Lower Middle Eocene Phosphate Deposits of Togo},
  author={Philip D. Gingerich and Henri Cappetta},
  booktitle={Journal of Paleontology},
Abstract Lutetian lower middle Eocene phosphate deposits of Kpogamé-Hahotoé in Togo yield new information about whales and sea cows in West Africa. Most specimens are individual teeth and bones, collected as isolated elements, but some appear to have been associated. Most are conservatively interpreted to represent a new 300–400 kg protocetid archaeocete, Togocetus traversei. This genus and species is distinctly primitive for a protocetid in retaining a relatively small mandibular canal in the… 

Tupelocetus palmeri, a new species of protocetid whale (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the middle Eocene of South Carolina

T. palmeri is described, a new genus and species of archaeocete whale based on a single specimen from the Cross Member of the middle Eocene Tupelo Bay Formation, which has also furnished the holotype of Carolinacetus gingerichi and another member of this polytomy is Natchitochia jonesi, which is unable to differentiate these two species.

Transition of Eocene Whales from Land to Sea: Evidence from Bone Microstructure

This study highlights the strong need for homologous sections in comparative microanatomical studies, and the importance of combining information from several bones of the same taxon for improved functional interpretation.

Protocetid (Cetacea, Artiodactyla) bullae and petrosals from the middle Eocene locality of Kpogamé, Togo: new insights into the early history of cetacean hearing

Extant cetaceans are fully aquatic mammals with deep modifications of their sensory organs, notably of the sound perception pathway. Early diverging cetaceans, known as archaeocetes, show a diversity

Middle Eocene vertebrate fauna from the Aridal Formation, Sabkha of Gueran, southwestern Morocco

ABSTRACT In the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco, the Aridal Formation of Gueran is known for the world's richest Bartonian archaic whale assemblage, which includes both protocetids and

From limb to fin: an Eocene protocetid forelimb from Senegal sheds new light on the early locomotor evolution of cetaceans

It is suggested that the Senegalese forelimb was actively used during swimming, which challenges previous reconstructions of protocetids as mainly foot‐powered swimmers, and suggests that swimming specializations of early cetaceans were probably more diverse than previously considered.

Protocetid cetaceans (Mammalia) from the Eocene of India

Two new genera and species are described: Kharodacetus sahnii and Dhedacetus hyaeni, both of which are protocetid cetaceans from District Kutch in the State of Gujarat and were recovered in deposits approximately 42 million years old.

Eocene Basilosaurid Whales from the La Meseta Formation, Marambio (Seymour) Island, Antarctica

Abstract. Basal fully aquatic whales, the basilosaurids are worldwide known from Bartonian—Priabonian localities, indicating that this group was widely distributed during the late middle Eocene. In



A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales.

  • S. BajpaiP. Gingerich
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Himalayacetus subathuensis is a new pakicetid archaeocete from the Subathu Formation of northern India that has a small mandibular canal and Pakicetus-like molar teeth suggesting that it fed on fish.

A Middle–Late Eocene vertebrate fauna (marine fish and mammals) from southwestern Morocco; preliminary report: age and palaeobiogeographical implications

Abstract Recent field work in the southern Moroccan Sahara (‘Western Sahara’), south of the city of ad-Dakhla, has led to the discovery of several new fossiliferous sites with fossil vertebrates in

New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism

Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land and corroborates previous ideas that protocETids were amphibious.

Remingtonocetus harudiensis, new combination, a Middle Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from Western Kutch, India

ABSTRACT A new genus of archaeocete cetaceans, Remingtonocetus, is based on revision of previously described and recently collected well preserved skull material from the Middle Eocene (Lutetian)

New fossils of Sirenia from the Middle Eocene of Navarre (Western Pyrenees): the oldest West European sea cow record

Abstract Postcranial remains of Sirenia from the early Middle Eocene (late Lutetian) Urbasa-Andia Formation of Navarre (Western Pyrenees) are described. The material consists of two partial atlas

New Species of Protosiren (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Early Middle Eocene of Balochistan (Pakistan)

Protosiren eothene is the oldest and smallest species of Protosiren known to date and retains synovial articulations on rib heads, and it is about 10-12% smaller in linear dimensions than P. fraasi from the early middle Eocene of Egypt.

Additional holotype remains of Ambulocetus natans (Cetacea, Ambulocetidae), and their implications for locomotion in early whales

Contin excavation at the type locality of Ambulocetus natans led to the recovery of a majority of the axial skeleton of the holotype, including both innominates, the sacrum, and most of the thoracic cage and thoracolumbar vertebral column, suggesting that previous estimates of spinal length derived from models of mesonychid ancestry may be inaccurate.

New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming

This is the oldest fossil whale described from deep-neritic shelf deposits, and it shows that tail swimming evolved early in the history of cetaceans.


  • S. Madar
  • Geography
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 2007
When both postcranial morphology and microstructure are considered, it can be concluded that pakicetid cetaceans were highly adapted for an aquatic niche.

Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Aquatic Locomotion in Archaeocete Whales

The fossil indicates that archaic whales swam by undulating their vertebral column, thus forcing their feet up and down in a way similar to modern otters.