A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration

@article{Abramitzky2014ANO,
  title={A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration},
  author={Ran Abramitzky and Leah Platt Boustan and Katherine Amelia Eriksson},
  journal={Journal of Political Economy},
  year={2014},
  volume={122},
  pages={467 - 506}
}
During the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1913), the United States maintained an open border, absorbing 30 million European immigrants. Prior cross-sectional work finds that immigrants initially held lower-paid occupations than natives but converged over time. In newly assembled panel data, we show that, in fact, the average immigrant did not face a substantial occupation-based earnings penalty upon first arrival and experienced occupational advancement at the same rate as natives. Cross-sectional… 
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