A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction

@article{Alroy2001AMO,
  title={A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction},
  author={John Alroy},
  journal={Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={292},
  pages={1893 - 1896}
}
  • J. Alroy
  • Published 8 June 2001
  • Environmental Science
  • Science
A computer simulation of North American end-Pleistocene human and large herbivore population dynamics correctly predicts the extinction or survival of 32 out of 41 prey species. Slow human population growth rates, random hunting, and low maximum hunting effort are assumed; additional parameters are based on published values. Predictions are close to observed values for overall extinction rates, human population densities, game consumption rates, and the temporal overlap of humans and extinct… 

Macroecological analyses support an overkill scenario for late Pleistocene extinctions.

  • J. Diniz‐Filho
  • Environmental Science
    Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia
  • 2004
A macroecological model is developed, in which prey population dynamic parameters, including abundance, geographic extent, and food supply for hunters, were derived from empirical allometric relationships with body mass, which illustrates the high selectivity of Pleistocene extinction in relation to body mass.

Estimates of Clovis-Era Megafaunal Populations and Their Extinction Risks

In order to evaluate the contribution that Clovis-era hunting made to the end-Pleistocene extinctions, we must examine the North American empirical evidence fairly, without using models from

Explaining the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions: Models, chronologies, and assumptions

  • B. BrookD. Bowman
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
It is demonstrated that in Greater Australia, where the extinctions occurred well before the end of the last Ice Age, estimates of the duration of coexistence between humans and megafauna remain imprecise, and the existing data do not prove the “blitzkrieg” model of overkill.

Investigating Anthropogenic Mammoth Extinction with Mathematical Models

Two dierent approaches are employed to test the stability of the equilibria of a 2D ordinary dierential equations system and show evidence that human-mammoth interaction would have caused the extinction of the Columbian mammoth during the late Pleistocene.

Unraveling the consequences of the terminal Pleistocene megafauna extinction on mammal community assembly

This work reconstructs mammal associations and body size distributions over time using tightly constrained temporal windows spanning full glacial to modern time periods and comprehensive faunal lists, and reveals interesting temporal patterns in the disassociation or co-occurrence of species through the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene.

A simulation of anthropogenic Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) extinction

Abstract The cause of the extinction of the Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) and other species of megafauna during the end of the Pleistocene epoch is an ongoing debate. In this study, we used

Biotic responses of canids to the terminal Pleistocene megafauna extinction

The results suggest that loss of megaherbivores and competition with humans likely outweighed advantages conferred from the loss of very large predators.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES

Marsupial megafauna, Aborigines and the overkill hypothesis: application of predator‐prey models to the question of Pleistocene extinction in Australia

It is suggested that for overkill to have driven medium to large marsupial megafauna extinct in the northern Eucalyptus savannas, Aboriginal densities must have been considerably higher than contemporary levels, or Aboriginal hunters astonishingly efficient, and climate change in the late Pleistocene may have played an important role in the extinction of Australianmegafauna.

Pleistocene extinctions: the pivotal role of megaherbivores

The elimination of megaherbivore influence is the major factor differentiating habitat changes at the end of the terminal Pleistocene glaciation from those occurring at previous glacial-interglacial transitions.

Modelling Paleoindian dispersals

It is reasonable to expect that the global dispersal of modern humans was influenced by habitat variation in space and time; but many simulation models average such variation into a single,

Spatial Response of Mammals to Late Quaternary Environmental Fluctuations

Analyses of fossil mammal faunas from 2945 localities in the United States demonstrate that the geographic ranges of individual species shifted at different times, in different directions, and at

Extinctions in near time : causes, contexts, and consequences

1 * Cretaceous Meteor Showers, the Human Ecological "Niche," and the Sixth Extinction.- 2 * Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents.- 3 * The Interaction of Humans, Megaherbivores, and

Causes of Ecosystem Transformation at the End of the Pleistocene: Evidence from Mammal Body-Mass Distributions

ABSTRACT Animal body sizes reflect the discontinuous architecture of the landscapes in which they live, and consequently their body-mass distributions are distinctly clumped rather than continuous.

CLIMATIC VARIABILITY, PLANT PHENOLOGY, AND NORTHERN UNGULATES

This work investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on the timing of flowering by plants in Norway and phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates.

Quaternary extinctions : a prehistoric revolution

What caused the extinction of so many animals at or near the end of the Pleistocene? Was it overkill by human hunters, the result of a major climatic change or was it just a part of some massive

On discerning the cause of late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions

  • M. Beck
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Paleobiology
  • 1996
I examine the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions by testing the only extinction model with strong a priori predictions, the blitzkrieg model (Martin 1973; Mosimann and Martin 1975). I first test