The St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (St. Jude) HIV-1 vaccine program is based on the observation that multiple antigenically distinct HIV-1 envelope protein structures are capable of mediating HIV-1 infection. A cocktail vaccine comprising representatives of these diverse structures (immunotypes) is therefore considered necessary to elicit lymphocyte populations that prevent HIV-1 infection. This strategy is reminiscent of that used to design a currently licensed and successful 23-valent pneumococcus vaccine. Three recombinant vector systems are used for the delivery of envelope cocktails (DNA, vaccinia virus, and purified protein), and each of these has been tested individually in phase I safety trials. A fourth FDA-approved clinical trial, in which diverse envelopes and vectors are combined in a prime-boost vaccination regimen, has recently begun. This trial will continue to test the hypothesis that a multi-vector, multi-envelope vaccine can elicit diverse B- and T-cell populations that can prevent HIV-1 infections in humans.