A Morphological Distinction between Neurones of the Male and Female, and the Behaviour of the Nucleolar Satellite during Accelerated Nucleoprotein Synthesis

@article{Barr1949AMD,
  title={A Morphological Distinction between Neurones of the Male and Female, and the Behaviour of the Nucleolar Satellite during Accelerated Nucleoprotein Synthesis},
  author={Murray L. Barr and Ewart G. Bertram},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1949},
  volume={163},
  pages={676-677}
}
GENETICISTS have long emphasized that ‘maleness’ and ‘femaleness’, so far as chromosome content is concerned, are projected from the fertilized ovum into the morphologically and functionally specialized somatic cells. It appears not to be generally known, however, that the sex of a somatic cell as highly differentiated as a neurone may be detected with no more elaborate equipment than a compound microscope following staining of the tissue by the routine Nissl method. 
Detection of the Sex of Cat Embryos from Nuclear Morphology in the Embryonic Membrane
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Evidence available so far suggests that the sex chromatin of females represents heterochromatic portions of the two X chromosomes. Expand
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The studies of Luers1 on the blood cells of Lagomorpha, and of Castro et al.2 on the ameloblasts of Rodentia, showed the possibility of determining the sex in these animals. Expand
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In leukocytes the hormonal relations of the sex chromatins, especially those of the pseudo-forms are studied, because it cannot be unambiguously explained how it is possible that chromosome pairs have so many, variegated and yet nonspecific morphological equivalents. Expand
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This work describes a persistent connexion between the sex chromosomes and the nucleoli in human fœtal liver based on observations made in ignorance of Reitalu's, of similar structures seen elsewhere. Expand
SEX IDENTIFICATION IN MOLLUSCS BY NEURON CYTOLOGY.
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The observation that the neurons of the ganglia of the periesophageal chain of hermaphrodite and separate-sexed molluscs present different characteristics permits an identification of the somatic sex of mollUScs independently of a knowledge of their genital organs. Expand
Occurrence of Sex Chromatin in the Cells of the Blood and Bone Marrow in Man
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This work has confirmed the finding of a morphological sex difference in the mature polymorphonuclear granulocytes of the human subject; these cells show a drumstick-like process which is present in 1–7 per cent of the nuclei in the female, but in less than 1 per cent in the male. Expand
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The simplicity of this sex-chromatin test for sexual dimorphism has become of vital diagnostic use in the evaluation of genetic sex, especially in man and other mammals, but also in other phyla as well. Expand
A Sex Difference in the Chromatin Structure of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
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A large number of investigations have been carried out in this field based on the criteria outlined by Barr and his co-workers, finding the presence of sex-specific nuclear appendages in granulocytes of the peripheral blood. Expand
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References

Ribonucleic Acids in Both Nucleus and Cytoplasm, and the Function of the Nucleolus.
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