A Morphological Distinction between Neurones of the Male and Female, and the Behaviour of the Nucleolar Satellite during Accelerated Nucleoprotein Synthesis

@article{Barr1949AMD,
  title={A Morphological Distinction between Neurones of the Male and Female, and the Behaviour of the Nucleolar Satellite during Accelerated Nucleoprotein Synthesis},
  author={Murray L. Barr and Ewart G. Bertram},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1949},
  volume={163},
  pages={676-677}
}
GENETICISTS have long emphasized that ‘maleness’ and ‘femaleness’, so far as chromosome content is concerned, are projected from the fertilized ovum into the morphologically and functionally specialized somatic cells. It appears not to be generally known, however, that the sex of a somatic cell as highly differentiated as a neurone may be detected with no more elaborate equipment than a compound microscope following staining of the tissue by the routine Nissl method. 
Detection of the Sex of Cat Embryos from Nuclear Morphology in the Embryonic Membrane
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Evidence available so far suggests that the sex chromatin of females represents heterochromatic portions of the two X chromosomes.
Sex Chromatin (‘Chromoleme’) in the Purkinje Nerve Cells of some Mammals
TLDR
The studies of Luers1 on the blood cells of Lagomorpha, and of Castro et al.2 on the ameloblasts of Rodentia, showed the possibility of determining the sex in these animals.
Observations on the so-called sex chromatin
  • J. James
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie
  • 2004
TLDR
In oral mucosal smears the disappearance of Barr's corpuscle was shown to go parallel with degenerative changes in the nuclei of the desquamated epithelial cells, in tissue culture preparations to be accompanied by progressive abnormality in the karyotype.
The Sex Chromatin of Interphase Nuclei in the Nine-Banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus
TLDR
Nervous tissue proved unsuitable for sexing both in young and adult armadillos, in accordance with Benirschke's earlier findings in these animals.
Representation of the X Chromosome in Intermitotic Nuclei in Man
TLDR
This work describes a persistent connexion between the sex chromosomes and the nucleoli in human fœtal liver based on observations made in ignorance of Reitalu's, of similar structures seen elsewhere.
Occurrence of Sex Chromatin in the Cells of the Blood and Bone Marrow in Man
TLDR
This work has confirmed the finding of a morphological sex difference in the mature polymorphonuclear granulocytes of the human subject; these cells show a drumstick-like process which is present in 1–7 per cent of the nuclei in the female, but in less than 1 per cent in the male.
A Sex Difference in the Chromatin Structure of the Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
TLDR
A large number of investigations have been carried out in this field based on the criteria outlined by Barr and his co-workers, finding the presence of sex-specific nuclear appendages in granulocytes of the peripheral blood.
Sex differentiation by leukocyte morphology.
TLDR
The sex morphology of teratomas and other tumors is under study, and preliminary reports have appeared on the sex differences of the cells in scrapings of the oral mucosa.
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References

Ribonucleic Acids in Both Nucleus and Cytoplasm, and the Function of the Nucleolus.
  • T. Caspersson, J. Schultz
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1940
The material exchanges between nucleus and cytoplasm were studied actively in the early days of cytology, a study which reached its climax in the theory of "trophochromatin."1 The methods used at