A Model of the Anterior Esophagus in Snakes, with Functional and Developmental Implications

  title={A Model of the Anterior Esophagus in Snakes, with Functional and Developmental Implications},
  author={David Cundall and Cassandra Tuttman and Matthew Close},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
The gross anatomy of the mouth of snakes has always been interpreted as an evolutionary response to feeding demands. [] Key Result Serial histological sections through the heads of a number of colubroid species show muscularis mucosal smooth muscle fibers appearing in the paratracheal gutter of the lower jaw at varying levels between the eye and ear regions. Incomplete muscularis externa elements appear beneath the paratracheal gutter more caudally but typically at otic levels.
Body size miniaturization in a lineage of colubrid snakes: Implications for cranial anatomy
In Dolichophis–Eirenis dwarfing lineages, different structural patterns are observed throughminiaturization, indicating that overcoming the challenge of miniaturization has achieved via different adaptations.
Cranial ontogeny of Thamnophis radix (Serpentes: Colubroidea) with a re-evaluation of current paradigms of snake skull evolution
The first analysis encompassing all three major ontogenetic stages for any squamate is provided, using the first complete micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)-based segmentations of any non-adult snake, based on fresh specimens of Thamnophis radix.
Laryngotracheal and cervical muscular anatomy in the genus Uroplatus (Gekkota: Gekkonidae) in relation to distress call emission
Modifications of the gular muscles and their attachments render the larynx of Uroplatus more mobile in the oropharyngeal region, and in large-bodied taxa (U. lineatus, U. sikorae) the trachea exhibits the degree of expansion previously observed for U. fimbriatus.
Structural and Functional Characterization of the Tongue and Digestive Tract of Psammophis sibilans (Squamata, Lamprophiidae): Adaptive Strategies for Foraging and Feeding Behaviors
The findings showed that the bifurcated non-papillate tongue exhibited chemoreceptive adaptions to squamate foraging behavior and the intrinsic musculature showed interwoven and well-developed transverse, vertical and longitudinal muscle fibers that control contraction and retraction during probing and flicking.
Feeding in Snakes: Form, Function, and Evolution of the Feeding System
A wide range of research on these and other topics has shown that snakes are a rich group for studying form, function, behavior, ecology, and evolution.
Dorsal root ganglia, neural crest migration, and spinal cord form in snakes
The anatomical position of spinal ganglia in snakes suggests that regulation of trunk neural crest migration in snakes differs from that in the model endotherms in which it has been most thoroughly explored.
An adult male snake was found dead with multiple injuries just behind the neck region in the College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati premises. The axial skeleton of the snake was studied by Alizarin
Vertebrate Evolution Conserves Hindbrain Circuits despite Diverse Feeding and Breathing Modes
This work provides a hypothesis for the existence of a common hindbrain circuit at the phylotypic embryonic stage controlling oropharyngeal movements that is shared across vertebrate species; and reconfiguration and repurposing of this conserved circuit give rise to more complex behaviors in adult higher vertebrates.
Blind snakes slink, wriggle, and bump through the pages of The Anatomical Record in a novel Special Issue
This month's Special Issue, “Blind Snakes,” Guest Edited by Rebecca Laver from the Research School of Biology at the Australian National University in Canberra and Juan Daza from the Department of Biological Sciences at Sam Houston University in Texas, shines a bright light, and focused vision, that explores the world of these extraordinary subterranean sleuths.


The evolution of the mammalian pharynx
The hypothesis of neuromuscular conservativism in the evolution of the mammalian feeding mechanism is considered and it is concluded that few data exist to support this hypothesis.
The morphology of the intrinsic tongue musculature in snakes (Reptilia, ophidia): Functional and phylogenetic implications
Although the pattern of colubroids appears to be the most biomechanically specialized, as yet no behavioral or performance feature has been identified to distinguish them from other snakes.
Finding the neck–trunk boundary in snakes: Anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization
Observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck–trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes and suggest that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the anterior–posterior patterning associated with body elongation.
Comments on the intermandibular muscles of snakes
A muscle occurring in Cylindrophis and Loxocemus, previously identified as part of the M. intermandibularis anterior (herein abbreviated to ima), is actually the M., transversus branchialis (sensu Cowan and Hick, 1951).
Developmental basis of limblessness and axial patterning in snakes
It is shown that Hox gene expression domains are expanded along the body axis in python embryos, and that this can account for both the absence of forelimbs and the expansion of thoracic identity in the axial skeleton.
From Lizard to Snake; Behind the Evolution of an Extreme Body Plan
The elongated, snake-like skeleton, as it has convergently evolved in numerous reptilian and amphibian lineages, is from a developmental biologist’s point of view amongst the most fascinating
The Evolution of the Tongue of Snakes, and its Bearing on Snake Origins
The form and texture of the tongue has long been one of the major bases for the classification of lizards, as evidenced by such herpetological catalogues as de Rooij (1915) that base the “synopsis of
Comparison of cranial form and function in association with diet in natricine snakes
Cranial morphology and the functional demands of prey capture and ingestion appear to be associated with primary prey type in natricine snakes.