A-Mode ultrasound guidance for pedicle screw advancement in ovine vertebral bodies.

@article{Raphael2010AModeUG,
  title={A-Mode ultrasound guidance for pedicle screw advancement in ovine vertebral bodies.},
  author={David T Raphael and Jin Ho Chang and Yao Ping Zhang and David Kudija and Thomas C. Chen and K. Kirk Shung},
  journal={The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society},
  year={2010},
  volume={10 5},
  pages={422-32}
}
BACKGROUND CONTEXT In pedicle screw fixation surgery, rigid instruments are inserted into a vertebral body. When the instruments are misdirected within the pedicle or advanced too far beyond it, perforations of the inner or outer cortex can cause damage to the spinal nerve roots and spinal cord. These complications can occur despite the use of imaging modalities, such as radiographs, fluoroscopy, and computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans. A-Mode ultrasound (US), a nonionizing modality… CONTINUE READING