A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone

  title={A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone},
  author={Baruch Arensburg and Annie Tillier and Bernard Vandermeersch and Henri Duday and Lynne A. Schepartz and Yoel Rak},
THE origin of human language, and in particular the question of whether or not Neanderthal man was capable of language/speech, is of major interest to anthropologists but remains an area of great controversy1, 2. Despite palaeoneurological evidence to the contrary3, 4, many researchers hold to the view that Neanderthals were incapable of language/speech, basing their arguments largely on studies of laryngeal/basicranial morphology1, 5, 6. Studies, however, have been hampered by the absence of… 
Talking Hyoids and Talking Neanderthals
  • D. Frayer
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2017
Yoel Rak and others published the first known Neanderthal hyoid bone in 1989. Contrary to expectations, the ~60 ka Kebara hyoid was completely within modern human variation and led them to conclude,
On Toothpicking in Early Hominids
The data on toothpicking presented by Hlusko (CA 44: 738–41) represent the earliest currently known nonlithic tool use by hominids. From an evolutionary perspective, the main question that follows
A reappraisal of the anatomical basis for speech in Middle Palaeolithic hominids.
This work critiques the use of the basicranium and instead presents the anatomical relations of the hyoid and adjacent structures in living humans as a basis for understanding the form of the vocal tract.
Comparative Morphology of the Hominin and African Ape Hyoid Bone, a Possible Marker of the Evolution of Speech
This study examines the morphology of the hyoid in three closely related species, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla to find the loss of the laryngeal air sacs as a derived Neanderthal and modern human trait, which evolved no later than the middle Pleistocene.
Language and human evolution
  • R. Klein
  • Geography
    Journal of Neurolinguistics
  • 2017
A juvenile early hominin skeleton from Dikika, Ethiopia
The foot and other evidence from the lower limb provide clear evidence for bipedal locomotion, but the gorilla-like scapula and long and curved manual phalanges raise new questions about the importance of arboreal behaviour in the A. afarensis locomotor repertoire.
The descended larynx is not uniquely human
It is suggested that laryngeal descent serves to elongate the vocal tract, allowing callers to exaggerate their perceived body size by decreasing vocal–tract resonant frequencies.
Le palais des hominidés. Comparaison avec les grands singes et l'homme moderne. Résultats préliminaires
The results show that the Australopithecus did probably not have a palate allowing the production of an articulated language, and Morphology of the hard palate compatible with this function seems present from the earliest fossils of the genus Homo.
Articulatory capacity of Neanderthals, a very recent and human-like fossil hominin
Debate about whether or not Neanderthals were human-like in all relevant respects is polarized, and methods that can be used to make further incremental advances in the understanding of the evolution of speech based on fossil and archaeological evidence are contributed.


Thermoluminescence dates for the Neanderthal burial site at Kebara in Israel
The origins of modern man are a subject of controversy among palaeoanthropologists concerned with human evolution1–3. Particularly heavily debated is the dating of hominid remains uncovered in
Un nouvel enfant moustrien, de Qafzeh (Isral) : Qafzeh 4a (en anglais)
Sous le nom de Qafzeh 4a sont designes des fragments (aile iliaque, temporal incomplet) appartenant a un enfant de 3 ans environ, autrefois attribues par R. Neuville a un enfant plus âge (Qafzeh 4).
The Biology and Evolution of Language
Drawing on data from anatomy, neurophysiology, physiology, and behavioral biology, Lieberman develops a new approach to the puzzle of language, arguing that it is the result of many evolutionary compromises.
Human paleontological evidence relevant to language behavior.
Additional evidence of sexual dimorphism in the modern human corpus callosum, in which the posterior splenial portion is larger in females, taken in conjunction with known clinical and psychological evidence relating to cognitive task specialization, suggests that thisDimorphism represents a biological heritage from past selection pressures for a dichotomous but complemental social behavioral set of adaptations to favor a division of sexual labors.