A Method to Quantify and Analyze the Foraging Activity of Honey Bees: Relevance to the Sublethal Effects Induced by Systemic Insecticides

@article{Colin2004AM,
  title={
A Method to Quantify and Analyze the Foraging Activity of Honey Bees: Relevance to the Sublethal Effects Induced by Systemic Insecticides},
  author={Marc Edouard Colin and Jean-Marc Bonmatin and I. Moineau and Cheryl Gaimon and Svante Brun and J. P. Vermandere},
  journal={Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
  year={2004},
  volume={47},
  pages={387-395}
}
The assessment of agropharmaceuticals’ side effects requires more realistic simulations of field conditions than those deduced from the dose-lethality relation obtained under laboratory conditions. Because the presence of sublethal doses or concentrations may also alter the behavior of foraging insects, we attempted to devise a quantifiable and accurate protocol for evidencing various alterations in free-flying bees. Such a protocol was illustrated by testing new classes of systemic… 

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Commercial formulations, dispersed in sugar syrup and water, at the highest dose level marked on the label were used to carry out oral and indirect contact trials on each pesticide, causing higher mortality than the untreated controls only in oral toxicity tests when honey bees, which had starved for two hours, were used.

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Estimates for modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides by estimating their pollen and nectar consumption are given for larvae and for the categories of adults which consume the highest amounts of - pollen, the nurse bees, and - nectar.

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Lethal and sublethal effects, and incomplete clearance of ingested imidacloprid in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

After exposure to syrup contaminated with 125 µg L−1 imidacloprid, honey bees experienced high mortality rates, had body residues of imidcloprid in the range 2.7–5.7 ng g−1 and exhibited abnormal behaviours that were significantly different from the controls, which contrast with the findings reported in the previous study.
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