A Method for Analyzing Selection in Hierarchically Structured Populations

@article{Heisler1987AMF,
  title={A Method for Analyzing Selection in Hierarchically Structured Populations},
  author={I. Lorraine Heisler and John E. Damuth},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1987},
  volume={130},
  pages={582 - 602}
}
Individual fitness depends on the particular ecological, genetic, and social contexts in which organisms are found. Variation in individual context among subunits of a population thus raises interesting questions about selection in nature but also complicates its study. We present a method for analyzing phenotypic selection in hierarchically structured populations. Applying this method, called contextual analysis, to the study of selection allows explicit answers to two frequently controversial… 
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The direct fitness approach and contextual analysis come from very different traditions, but both methods rely on the same underlying equation, with the primary difference between the two approaches being that thedirect fitness approach uses fitness optimization modeling, whereas with contextual analysis, the same equation is used to solve for the change in fitness associated with a change in phenotype when the population is away from the optimal phenotype.
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