A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder

@article{CoxFoster2007AMS,
  title={A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder},
  author={Diana L Cox-Foster and Sean Conlan and Edward C. Holmes and Gustavo F. Palacios and Jay D. Evans and Nancy A. Moran and Phenix-Lan Quan and Thomas Briese and Mady Hornig and David M. Geiser and Vincent G. Martinson and Dennis vanEngelsdorp and Abby L. Kalkstein and Andrew Drysdale and Jeffrey Hui and Junhui Zhai and Liwang Cui and Stephen K. Hutchison and Jan Fredrik Simons and Michael Wayland Egholm and Jeffery S. Pettis and W. Ian Lipkin},
  journal={Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={318},
  pages={283 - 287}
}
In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. [] Key Method We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey microflora in CCD hives, normal hives, and imported royal jelly. Candidate pathogens were screened for significance of association with CCD by the examination of samples collected from several sites over a period of 3 years. One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD.
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TLDR
It is found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December, indicating that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival.
Honeybee colony collapse due to Nosema ceranae in professional apiaries.
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Anamnesis, clinical examination and analyses support that the depopulation in both cases was due to the infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of Apis mellifera.
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