A Meta-Analysis of Cytokines in Alzheimer's Disease

  title={A Meta-Analysis of Cytokines in Alzheimer's Disease},
  author={Walter Swardfager and Krista L. Lanct{\^o}t and Lana S. Rothenburg and A. Wong and Jaclyn Cappell and Nathan Herrmann},
  journal={Biological Psychiatry},
Peripheral inflammatory markers in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 175 studies
It is suggested that AD is accompanied by a peripheral inflammatory response and that IL-6 may be a useful biological marker to correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment and inversely correlated with mean MMSE scores.
Inflammatory markers in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis and systematic review of 170 studies
Significantly altered levels of inflammatory markers were verified in comparison between AD, MCI and control, supporting the notion that AD and MCI are accompanied by inflammatory responses in both the periphery and CSF.
Increased peripheral blood inflammatory cytokine levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis study
Random-effects meta-analysis demonstrated that blood tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly elevated in patients with ALS compared with control subjects, and peripheral blood inflammatory cytokines may be used as diagnostic biomarkers for ALS in the future.
Alterations of the Neuroinflammatory Markers IL-6 and TRAIL in Alzheimer's Disease
Plasma levels of IL-6 and TRAIL were identified as potential biomarkers of AD at an early stage and were significantly correlated with their cerebrospinal fluid levels.
Inflammatory Markers in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis.
The findings do not support the involvement of inflammatory markers at the MCI stage of cognitive decline although significant heterogeneity was observed in some comparisons.
Raised serum proinflammatory cytokines in Alzheimer's disease with depression.
A strong inverse correlation was observed between the MMSE scores and serum levels of IL-6 or TNF-α in AD subjects with depression and an important role is highlighted in AD associated depression and cognitive deficits.
Plasma Cytokines Profile in Subjects with Alzheimer’s Disease: Interleukin 1 Alpha as a Candidate for Target Therapy
Based on the observed correlation between IL-1α, as a clinical moiety, and ADAS-cog, as an clinical manifestation of AD, anti-IL-1 α therapy in AD could be suggested.
Aberrations in Peripheral Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Parkinson Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
The findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated higher peripheral concentrations of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, ILs, and RANTES in patients with PD, strengthening the clinical evidence that PD is accompanied by an inflammatory response.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokine Aberrations in Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Results not only strengthen the clinical evidence that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by the increased inflammatory response, but also reveal the unique inflammatory response profile in the central nervous system of patients with AD, PD and ALS.


Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia.
There is a marked reduction in the concentration of serum TNF-alpha in both AD and MID which seems to be poorly related to cognitive dysfunction and/ or neurovascular damage, probably reflecting an endogenous immune dysregulation and/or an inhibitory reactive process in demented patients.
Peripheral Inflammatory Cytokines as Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment
These results agree with a persistent inflammatory status in AD, reinforcing the hypothesis of a progressive impairment of the immune response in this disorder and suggesting that monocytes may be good targets to study the progression from MCI to AD.
Peripheral Cytokines and Chemokines in Alzheimer’s Disease
A chronic inflammatory process has been implicated in the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present review focuses on the current knowledge of circulating serum and plasma biomarkers of
Clinical significance of neurobiochemical profiles in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer’s disease patients
The combined evaluation of Aβ42-IR and TTIR in this cross-sectional study resulted in a graph separating AD from non-AD patients with increased specificity of 91% and 75% for AD versus OND and NAD, respectively.
Plasma cytokines profile in older subjects with late onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia.