A Lunar Microbial Survival Model for Predicting the Forward Contamination of the Moon.

  title={A Lunar Microbial Survival Model for Predicting the Forward Contamination of the Moon.},
  author={Andrew C. Schuerger and John E. Moores and D. J. Smith and G{\"u}nther Reitz},
  volume={19 6},
The surface conditions on the Moon are extremely harsh with high doses of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (26.8 W · m-2 UVC/UVB), wide temperature extremes (-171°C to 140°C), low pressure (10-10 Pa), and high levels of ionizing radiation. External spacecraft surfaces on the Moon are generally >100°C during daylight hours and can reach as high as 140°C at local noon. A Lunar Microbial Survival (LMS) model was developed that estimated (1) the total viable bioburden of all spacecraft landed on the… 
A Cruise-Phase Microbial Survival Model for Calculating Bioburden Reductions on Past or Future Spacecraft Throughout Their Missions with Application to Europa Clipper.
From these simulations, it is able to generalize about bioburden reduction in transit on spacecraft in general, finding that all spacecraft surfaces would sustain at least one LD in ≤38.5 years even if completely unheated.
Exposure to low Earth orbit of an extreme-tolerant cyanobacterium as a contribution to lunar astrobiology activities
Abstract By investigating the survival and the biomarker detectability of a rock-inhabiting cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029, the BIOMEX space experiment might contribute to a future
Europa Clipper planetary protection probabilistic risk assessment summary
Abstract Protecting Jupiter’s Icy Moons from the Earth’s biological contamination is a key consideration for the Europa Clipper mission. The mission’s goal is to explore Jupiter’s moon, Europa, and
Half a century after the first bootprint on the lunar surface: The ichnological side of the Moon
Abstract Humankind began with extra-planetary expeditions in the 1960s. To date, more than fifty manned and unmanned lunar missions have taken place. Maybe, the most iconic image of these campaigns
S1473550420000397jra 1..28
  • 2021
Planetary Protection: Too Late
Correction to: Astrobiology 2019; 19(6):730-756.
  • Medicine
  • 2020


Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space.
  • G. Horneck, H. Bucker, G. Reitz
  • Physics, Medicine
    Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research
  • 1994
With this 6 year study in space, experimental data are provided to the discussion on the likelihood of "Panspermia", where up to 10(4) viable spores were still recovered, even in completely unprotected samples.
Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers.
Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials.
Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.
This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.
Radiation exposure in the moon environment
Abstract During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of
Survival of bacteria and spores under extreme shock pressures
Some rocky objects on Earth originated on other planets (e.g. Martian meteorites). Modelling of interplanetary transfer times (Mars-Earth) and calculations of the survival of cells and spores in the
Microbiological profiles of the Viking spacecraft
The percentage of microorganisms of human origin was consistent with results obtained with previous automated spacecraft but slightly lower than those observed for manned (Apollo) spacecraft.
Determination of lethality rate constants and D-values for heat-resistant Bacillus spores ATCC 29669 exposed to dry heat from 125°C to 200°C.
Data obtained support expanding the NASA specifications to temperatures higher than 125°C and relaxing the four log reduction specification for dry heat microbial reduction.
Molecular microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility.
The conventional microbiological examination revealed that the JPL-SAF harbors mainly Gram-positive microbes and mostly spore-forming Bacillus species, but direct DNA isolation, cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed equal representation of both Gram- positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.
Bacillus subtilis spores on artificial meteorites survive hypervelocity atmospheric entry: implications for Lithopanspermia.
These experiments constitute the first report of spore survival to hypervelocity atmospheric transit, and indicate that sounding rocket flights can be used to model the high-speed atmospheric entry of bacteria-laden artificial meteorites.
Quantitative and qualitative microbiological profiles of the Apollo 10 and 11 spacecraft.
The results showed that approximately 95% of all isolates were those considered indigenous to humans; the remaining were associated with soil and dust in the environment, however, the ratio of these two general groups varied depending on the degrees of personnel density and environmental control associated with each module.