A Lunar Microbial Survival Model for Predicting the Forward Contamination of the Moon.

  title={A Lunar Microbial Survival Model for Predicting the Forward Contamination of the Moon.},
  author={Andrew C. Schuerger and John E. Moores and David J. Smith and G{\"u}nther Reitz},
  volume={19 6},
The surface conditions on the Moon are extremely harsh with high doses of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (26.8 W · m-2 UVC/UVB), wide temperature extremes (-171°C to 140°C), low pressure (10-10 Pa), and high levels of ionizing radiation. External spacecraft surfaces on the Moon are generally >100°C during daylight hours and can reach as high as 140°C at local noon. A Lunar Microbial Survival (LMS) model was developed that estimated (1) the total viable bioburden of all spacecraft landed on the… 

Microbial Protocols for Spacecraft: 1. Effects of Surface Texture, Low Pressure, and UV Irradiation on Recovery of Microorganisms from Surfaces.

Modeling risks for the forward contamination of planetary surfaces from endemic bioburdens on landed spacecraft requires precise data on the biocidal effects of space factors on microbial survival.

A Cruise-Phase Microbial Survival Model for Calculating Bioburden Reductions on Past or Future Spacecraft Throughout Their Missions with Application to Europa Clipper.

From these simulations, it is able to generalize about bioburden reduction in transit on spacecraft in general, finding that all spacecraft surfaces would sustain at least one LD in ≤38.5 years even if completely unheated.

Exposure to low Earth orbit of an extreme-tolerant cyanobacterium as a contribution to lunar astrobiology activities

Abstract By investigating the survival and the biomarker detectability of a rock-inhabiting cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029, the BIOMEX space experiment might contribute to a future

Investigation of fungal biomolecules after Low Earth Orbit exposure: a testbed for the next Moon missions

Summary The Moon is characterized by extremely harsh conditions due to ultraviolet irradiation, wide temperature extremes, vacuum resulting from the absence of an atmosphere and high ionizing

Planetary Protection: Too Late

S1473550420000397jra 1..28

  • 2021



Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space.

Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers.

Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials.

Microbial survival of space vacuum and extreme ultraviolet irradiation: strain isolation and analysis during a rocket flight.

This is the first report on the isolated effect of extreme UV at 30 nm on cell survival, suggesting that in contrast to near UV, membrane proteins rather than DNA were damaged by the radiation.

Survival of bacteria and spores under extreme shock pressures

Some rocky objects on Earth originated on other planets (e.g. Martian meteorites). Modelling of interplanetary transfer times (Mars-Earth) and calculations of the survival of cells and spores in the

Microbiological profiles of the Viking spacecraft

The percentage of microorganisms of human origin was consistent with results obtained with previous automated spacecraft but slightly lower than those observed for manned (Apollo) spacecraft.

Determination of lethality rate constants and D-values for heat-resistant Bacillus spores ATCC 29669 exposed to dry heat from 125°C to 200°C.

Data obtained support expanding the NASA specifications to temperatures higher than 125°C and relaxing the four log reduction specification for dry heat microbial reduction.

Molecular microbial diversity of a spacecraft assembly facility.

The conventional microbiological examination revealed that the JPL-SAF harbors mainly Gram-positive microbes and mostly spore-forming Bacillus species, but direct DNA isolation, cloning and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed equal representation of both Gram- positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.

Bacillus subtilis spores on artificial meteorites survive hypervelocity atmospheric entry: implications for Lithopanspermia.

These experiments constitute the first report of spore survival to hypervelocity atmospheric transit, and indicate that sounding rocket flights can be used to model the high-speed atmospheric entry of bacteria-laden artificial meteorites.

Quantitative and qualitative microbiological profiles of the Apollo 10 and 11 spacecraft.

The results showed that approximately 95% of all isolates were those considered indigenous to humans; the remaining were associated with soil and dust in the environment, however, the ratio of these two general groups varied depending on the degrees of personnel density and environmental control associated with each module.