# A Local Learning Algorithm for Dynamic Feedforward and Recurrent Networks

@article{Schmidhuber1989ALL, title={A Local Learning Algorithm for Dynamic Feedforward and Recurrent Networks}, author={J{\"u}rgen Schmidhuber}, journal={Connection Science}, year={1989}, volume={1}, pages={403-412} }

Abstract Most known learning algorithms for dynamic neural networks in non-stationary environments need global computations to perform credit assignment. These algorithms either are not local in time or not local in space. Those algorithms which are local in both time and space usually cannot deal sensibly with ‘hidden units’. In contrast, as far as we can judge, learning rules in biological systems with many ‘hidden units’ are local in both space and time. In this paper we propose a parallel…

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