A Learning Perspective on Individual Differences in Skilled Reading: Exploring and Exploiting Orthographic and Semantic Discrimination Cues

@article{Milin2017ALP,
  title={A Learning Perspective on Individual Differences in Skilled Reading: Exploring and Exploiting Orthographic and Semantic Discrimination Cues},
  author={Petar Milin and D. Divjak and R. Harald Baayen},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition},
  year={2017},
  volume={43},
  pages={1730–1751}
}
  • P. Milin, D. Divjak, R. Baayen
  • Published 1 November 2017
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
The goal of the present study is to understand the role orthographic and semantic information play in the behavior of skilled readers. Reading latencies from a self-paced sentence reading experiment in which Russian near-synonymous verbs were manipulated appear well-predicted by a combination of bottom-up sublexical letter triplets (trigraphs) and top-down semantic generalizations, modeled using the Naive Discrimination Learner. The results reveal a complex interplay of bottom-up and top-down… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A discriminative learning perspective
Over the last decades, a growing body of evidence on the mechanisms governing lexical storage, access, acquisition and processing has questioned traditional models of language architecture and word
Consistency measures individuate dissociating semantic modulations in priming paradigms: A new look on semantics in the processing of (complex) words
TLDR
This work focuses on the consistency between orthographic forms and meaning, and investigates how the cognitive system may exploit it to process words, and develops a new semantic consistency measure based on the semantic density of target neighbourhoods.
Exploring and Exploiting Uncertainty: Statistical Learning Ability Affects How We Learn to Process Language Along Multiple Dimensions of Experience
TLDR
Analysis of data from healthy monolingual adults' performance on a serial reaction time task and a self-paced reading task shows how individual differences in statistical pattern learning are reflected in readers' knowledge of linguistic co-occurrence patterns and in their exploration and exploitation of content-specific and task-general information.
Modeling Morphological Priming in German With Naive Discriminative Learning
Both localist and connectionist models, based on experimental results obtained for English and French, assume that the degree of semantic compositionality of a morphologically complex word is
A learning perspective on the emergence of abstractions: the curious case of phonemes
TLDR
It is shown that ECL learning models can learn abstractions and that at least part of the phone inventory can be reliably identified from the input.
A database of orthography-semantics consistency (OSC) estimates for 15,017 English words
TLDR
It is shown that OSC is an important and significant predictor of reaction times in visual word recognition and word naming, one that correlates only weakly with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., family size, word frequency), indicating that it captures a novel source of variance in lexical access.
Language experience shapes relational knowledge of compound words
TLDR
The results confirm that language experience affects an individual’s ability to use relational knowledge in order to combine conceptual units, and offer further support for the Lexical Quality Hypothesis, which states that lexical representations of words become simultaneously more flexible and precise as a result of repeated exposure to their orthographic forms in language usage.
Aging and Language: Maintenance of Morphological Representations in Older Adults
Studies employing primed lexical decision tasks have revealed morphological facilitation effects in children and young adults. It is unknown if this effect is preserved or diminished in older adults.
What is learned from exposure: an error-driven approach to productivity in language
TLDR
It is shown that the basic principle of error-driven learning allows language users to detect relevant patterns of any degree of systematicity and constrains the authors' inferences about the types of structures that should be targeted on a cognitively realistic account of allomorphic representation.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 150 REFERENCES
Beginning readers activate semantics from sub-word orthography
Predictors of Orthographic Learning of Regular and Irregular Words
TLDR
At the participant level, phonological decoding skill, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary knowledge were associated with orthographic learning for both word types, however, at an item level, reading novel words correctly did not directly relate to the successful acquisition of the representations of those novel words.
Understanding normal and impaired word reading: computational principles in quasi-regular domains.
TLDR
Analysis of the ability of networks to reproduce data on acquired surface dyslexia support a view of the reading system that incorporates a graded division of labor between semantic and phonological processes, and contrasts in important ways with the standard dual-route account.
Can cognitive models explain brain activation during word and pseudoword reading? A meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies.
TLDR
A framework is developed that enables predictions for neural activity to be derived from cognitive models of reading using 2 principles: the extent to which a model component or brain region is engaged by a stimulus and how much effort is exerted in processing that stimulus.
Individual differences in visual word recognition: insights from the English Lexicon Project.
TLDR
Differences among individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project were examined, and higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information.
Reading Ability: Lexical Quality to Comprehension
TLDR
The studies provide evidence that word-level knowledge has consequences for word meaning processes in comprehension, and large-scale correlational results show the general interdependence of comprehension and lexical skill while identifying disassociations that allow focus on comprehension-specific skill.
The Role of Children's Phonological and Semantic Knowledge in Learning to Read Words
The effect of phonology and semantics on word learning in 5- and 6-year-old children was explored. In Experiment 1, children learned to read words varying in spelling-sound consistency and
Computing the meanings of words in reading: cooperative division of labor between visual and phonological processes.
TLDR
This long-standing debate is addressed by examining how a large-scale computational model based on connectionist principles would solve the problem and comparing the model's performance to people's by using an architecture in which meanings are jointly determined by the 2 components.
Discrimination in lexical decision
TLDR
Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks and indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...