A Ladder of Empowerment

@article{Rocha1997ALO,
  title={A Ladder of Empowerment},
  author={Elizabeth M. Rocha},
  journal={Journal of Planning Education and Research},
  year={1997},
  volume={17},
  pages={31 - 44}
}
  • E. M. Rocha
  • Published 1 September 1997
  • Economics
  • Journal of Planning Education and Research
Empowerment is often envisioned as a solution to poverty acceptable to both the political right and left. Yet the question that is rarely asked or answered is, What is empowerment? While the empowerment literature provides a rich array of techniques and goals through which individuals and groups seek to alter their circumstances, it is contradictory in assumptions and emphases and provides little coherence or structure with which to make informed decisions. This paper develops a typology, a… 

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The invitation to write this response to Emener's paper on empowerment came as something of a surprise. "I haven't written anything on empowerment" says I, "Why me?" After a quick review of my

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