A Ladder of Empowerment

  title={A Ladder of Empowerment},
  author={Elizabeth M. Rocha},
  journal={Journal of Planning Education and Research},
  pages={31 - 44}
  • E. M. Rocha
  • Published 1 September 1997
  • Economics
  • Journal of Planning Education and Research
Empowerment is often envisioned as a solution to poverty acceptable to both the political right and left. Yet the question that is rarely asked or answered is, What is empowerment? While the empowerment literature provides a rich array of techniques and goals through which individuals and groups seek to alter their circumstances, it is contradictory in assumptions and emphases and provides little coherence or structure with which to make informed decisions. This paper develops a typology, a… 

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This article examines to what degree minority empowerment, understood as representation in political and administrative decision-making, leads to the implementation of minority protection policy. As



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  • Education
    Prevention in human services
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A view of empowerment as a necessarily long-term process of adult learning and development is proposed, further described as the continuing construction of a multi-dimensional participatory competence.

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  • J. Rappaport
  • Philosophy, Psychology
    American journal of community psychology
  • 1987
The concept "prevention" is viewed as an exemplar, whereas the concept "empowerment" is suggested as a leading candidate for the title "phenomena of interest" to Community Psychology.

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    American journal of community psychology
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